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Developmental aspects of cortical excitability and inhibition in depressed and healthy youth: an exploratory study.

Croarkin PE, Nakonezny PA, Lewis CP, Zaccariello MJ, Huxsahl JE, Husain MM, Kennard BD, Emslie GJ, Daskalakis ZJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: In the overall sample of 46 participants, age had a significant negative relationship with motor threshold (MT) in both the right (r s = -0.49, adjusted p = 0.007; β = -0.08, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.42, adjusted p = 0.029; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres.In the sample of the 33 participants who completed LICI testing, age had a significant negative relationship with LICI (200 ms interval) in both the right (r s = -0.48, adjusted p = 0.05; β = -0.24, adjusted p = 0.007) and left (r s = -0.64, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.23, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres.LICI inhibition may also increase with age in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this post-hoc exploratory analysis was to examine the relationship between age and measures of cortical excitability and inhibition.

Methods: Forty-six participants (24 with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls) completed MT, SICI, ICF, and CSP testing in a cross-sectional protocol. Of these 46 participants, 33 completed LICI testing. Multiple linear robust regression and Spearman partial correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between age and the TMS measures.

Results: In the overall sample of 46 participants, age had a significant negative relationship with motor threshold (MT) in both the right (r s = -0.49, adjusted p = 0.007; β = -0.08, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.42, adjusted p = 0.029; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres. This significant negative relationship of age with MT was also observed in the sample of depressed youth in both the right (r s = -0.70, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.09, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.54, adjusted p = 0.034; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.017) hemispheres, but not in healthy controls. In the sample of the 33 participants who completed LICI testing, age had a significant negative relationship with LICI (200 ms interval) in both the right (r s = -0.48, adjusted p = 0.05; β = -0.24, adjusted p = 0.007) and left (r s = -0.64, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.23, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres. This negative relationship between age and LICI (200 ms interval) was also observed in depressed youth in both the right (r s = -0.76, adjusted p = 0.034; β = -0.35, adjusted p = 0.004) and left (r s = -0.92, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.25, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that younger children have higher MTs. This is more pronounced in depressed youth than healthy controls. LICI inhibition may also increase with age in youth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left hemisphere) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by healthy controls and MDD patients. Note: The interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of motor threshold on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in the left hemisphere (p = 0.61).
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Figure 1: Scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left hemisphere) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by healthy controls and MDD patients. Note: The interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of motor threshold on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in the left hemisphere (p = 0.61).

Mentions: In the overall sample of 46 youth, the Spearman partial correlations and the multiple linear robust regression, while adjusting for sex and CDRS-R total, revealed a significant negative linear relationship between age and MT in both the right (rs = −0.49, raw p = 0.0007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.007; β = −0.08, 95% CI = −0.12 to −0.05, raw p = 0.0001, FDR-adjusted p = 0.001) and left (rs = −0.42, raw p = 0.004, FDR-adjusted p = 0.029; β = −0.05, 95% CI = −0.09 to −0.02, raw p = 0.0007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres. This significant negative relationship of age with MT, while adjusting for sex, was also observed in the sample of depressed youth in both the right (rs = −0.70, raw p = 0.0002, FDR-adjusted p = 0.002; β = −0.09, 95% CI = −0.13 to −0.05, raw p = 0.0001, FDR-adjusted p = 0.001) and left (rs = −0.54, raw p = 0.007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.034; β = −0.05, 95% CI = −0.09 to −0.02, raw p = 0.003, FDR-adjusted p = 0.017) hemispheres, but not in healthy controls. Note that lower MT values reflect increased excitability. We also present scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left and right hemispheres) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by depressed youth and healthy controls (Figures 1, 2). We note that the post-hoc results of the interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of MT on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in both the left (p = 0.61; Figure 1) and right (p = 0.28; Figure 2) hemispheres.


Developmental aspects of cortical excitability and inhibition in depressed and healthy youth: an exploratory study.

Croarkin PE, Nakonezny PA, Lewis CP, Zaccariello MJ, Huxsahl JE, Husain MM, Kennard BD, Emslie GJ, Daskalakis ZJ - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left hemisphere) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by healthy controls and MDD patients. Note: The interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of motor threshold on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in the left hemisphere (p = 0.61).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4151107&req=5

Figure 1: Scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left hemisphere) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by healthy controls and MDD patients. Note: The interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of motor threshold on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in the left hemisphere (p = 0.61).
Mentions: In the overall sample of 46 youth, the Spearman partial correlations and the multiple linear robust regression, while adjusting for sex and CDRS-R total, revealed a significant negative linear relationship between age and MT in both the right (rs = −0.49, raw p = 0.0007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.007; β = −0.08, 95% CI = −0.12 to −0.05, raw p = 0.0001, FDR-adjusted p = 0.001) and left (rs = −0.42, raw p = 0.004, FDR-adjusted p = 0.029; β = −0.05, 95% CI = −0.09 to −0.02, raw p = 0.0007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres. This significant negative relationship of age with MT, while adjusting for sex, was also observed in the sample of depressed youth in both the right (rs = −0.70, raw p = 0.0002, FDR-adjusted p = 0.002; β = −0.09, 95% CI = −0.13 to −0.05, raw p = 0.0001, FDR-adjusted p = 0.001) and left (rs = −0.54, raw p = 0.007, FDR-adjusted p = 0.034; β = −0.05, 95% CI = −0.09 to −0.02, raw p = 0.003, FDR-adjusted p = 0.017) hemispheres, but not in healthy controls. Note that lower MT values reflect increased excitability. We also present scatterplots of the log transformed MT values (left and right hemispheres) against age, with a fitted regression line and 95% confidence limits, by depressed youth and healthy controls (Figures 1, 2). We note that the post-hoc results of the interaction of group with age indicated that the slope of the regression of MT on age was similar for both healthy controls and MDD patients in both the left (p = 0.61; Figure 1) and right (p = 0.28; Figure 2) hemispheres.

Bottom Line: In the overall sample of 46 participants, age had a significant negative relationship with motor threshold (MT) in both the right (r s = -0.49, adjusted p = 0.007; β = -0.08, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.42, adjusted p = 0.029; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres.In the sample of the 33 participants who completed LICI testing, age had a significant negative relationship with LICI (200 ms interval) in both the right (r s = -0.48, adjusted p = 0.05; β = -0.24, adjusted p = 0.007) and left (r s = -0.64, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.23, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres.LICI inhibition may also increase with age in youth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this post-hoc exploratory analysis was to examine the relationship between age and measures of cortical excitability and inhibition.

Methods: Forty-six participants (24 with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls) completed MT, SICI, ICF, and CSP testing in a cross-sectional protocol. Of these 46 participants, 33 completed LICI testing. Multiple linear robust regression and Spearman partial correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between age and the TMS measures.

Results: In the overall sample of 46 participants, age had a significant negative relationship with motor threshold (MT) in both the right (r s = -0.49, adjusted p = 0.007; β = -0.08, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.42, adjusted p = 0.029; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.004) hemispheres. This significant negative relationship of age with MT was also observed in the sample of depressed youth in both the right (r s = -0.70, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.09, adjusted p = 0.001) and left (r s = -0.54, adjusted p = 0.034; β = -0.05, adjusted p = 0.017) hemispheres, but not in healthy controls. In the sample of the 33 participants who completed LICI testing, age had a significant negative relationship with LICI (200 ms interval) in both the right (r s = -0.48, adjusted p = 0.05; β = -0.24, adjusted p = 0.007) and left (r s = -0.64, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.23, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres. This negative relationship between age and LICI (200 ms interval) was also observed in depressed youth in both the right (r s = -0.76, adjusted p = 0.034; β = -0.35, adjusted p = 0.004) and left (r s = -0.92, adjusted p = 0.002; β = -0.25, adjusted p = 0.001) hemispheres.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that younger children have higher MTs. This is more pronounced in depressed youth than healthy controls. LICI inhibition may also increase with age in youth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus