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Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

Sreeramareddy CT, Pradhan PM, Mir IA, Sin S - Popul Health Metr (2014)

Bottom Line: Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women.Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia.Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately.

Methods: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command.

Results: Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries.

Conclusion: Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportional distribution of various forms of tobacco consumed among men and women in nine South and Southeast Asian countries.
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Figure 2: Proportional distribution of various forms of tobacco consumed among men and women in nine South and Southeast Asian countries.

Mentions: Among men, weighted prevalence of smoking varied between the countries; the highest prevalence was found in Indonesia (72.3%), followed by Timor Leste (69.5%), Bangladesh (60.0%), and Maldives (47.3%), but prevalence was lower in India (34.1%), Nepal (33.6%), Cambodia (34.7%), and Pakistan (31.6%). Prevalence of SLT use among men also varied between countries, with the highest prevalence in India (36.7%), followed by Nepal (34.8%) and Bangladesh (21.4%), and the lowest in Indonesia (0.46%) and Timor Leste (2.5%) (Figure 1). Among women, weighted prevalence of smoking was much lower than men in all countries; the highest prevalence was in Nepal (9.8%), followed by Philippines (5.2%), Maldives (4.6%), and Pakistan (4.02%). Prevalence of SLT use among women was highest in India (9.0%), followed by Cambodia (5.1%), Nepal (4.8%), and Maldives (4.2%) (Figure 1). The most common form of tobacco consumed was cigarettes in all countries except India and Timor Leste. Cigarettes/bidis were smoked in India, and hand-rolled cigarettes were smoked in Timor Leste. However, Indian men and women used diverse forms of SLT including ‘gutkha,’ ‘pan masala,’ and other chewing tobacco (unspecified). Chewing tobacco was also common in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Cambodia. Indonesian men mostly smoked cigarettes, while women there were also using chewing tobacco. Smoking a pipe/cigar was only seen among Filipino and Nepalese women, while women from Maldives and Pakistan mostly smoked hookah (Figure 2).


Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

Sreeramareddy CT, Pradhan PM, Mir IA, Sin S - Popul Health Metr (2014)

Proportional distribution of various forms of tobacco consumed among men and women in nine South and Southeast Asian countries.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4151025&req=5

Figure 2: Proportional distribution of various forms of tobacco consumed among men and women in nine South and Southeast Asian countries.
Mentions: Among men, weighted prevalence of smoking varied between the countries; the highest prevalence was found in Indonesia (72.3%), followed by Timor Leste (69.5%), Bangladesh (60.0%), and Maldives (47.3%), but prevalence was lower in India (34.1%), Nepal (33.6%), Cambodia (34.7%), and Pakistan (31.6%). Prevalence of SLT use among men also varied between countries, with the highest prevalence in India (36.7%), followed by Nepal (34.8%) and Bangladesh (21.4%), and the lowest in Indonesia (0.46%) and Timor Leste (2.5%) (Figure 1). Among women, weighted prevalence of smoking was much lower than men in all countries; the highest prevalence was in Nepal (9.8%), followed by Philippines (5.2%), Maldives (4.6%), and Pakistan (4.02%). Prevalence of SLT use among women was highest in India (9.0%), followed by Cambodia (5.1%), Nepal (4.8%), and Maldives (4.2%) (Figure 1). The most common form of tobacco consumed was cigarettes in all countries except India and Timor Leste. Cigarettes/bidis were smoked in India, and hand-rolled cigarettes were smoked in Timor Leste. However, Indian men and women used diverse forms of SLT including ‘gutkha,’ ‘pan masala,’ and other chewing tobacco (unspecified). Chewing tobacco was also common in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Cambodia. Indonesian men mostly smoked cigarettes, while women there were also using chewing tobacco. Smoking a pipe/cigar was only seen among Filipino and Nepalese women, while women from Maldives and Pakistan mostly smoked hookah (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women.Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia.Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Population Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately.

Methods: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command.

Results: Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries.

Conclusion: Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus