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How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition.

Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC - Neuropsychol Rev (2014)

Bottom Line: Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time.Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline.The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA, parl@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
"The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC)", proposed in 2009, is a conceptual model of cognitive aging that integrated evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging to explain how the combined effects of adverse and compensatory neural processes produce varying levels of cognitive function. The model made clear and testable predictions about how different brain variables, both structural and functional, were related to cognitive function, focusing on the core construct of compensatory scaffolding. The present paper provides a revised model that integrates new evidence about the aging brain that has emerged since STAC was published 5 years ago. Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time. Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline. The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions. STAC-r goes beyond the previous model by combining a life-span approach with a life-course approach to understand and predict cognitive status and rate of cognitive change over time.

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A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition-revised (STAC-r)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig2: A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition-revised (STAC-r)

Mentions: The STAC model predicts cognitive function at a single time point during an individual’s lifespan with a focus on later-life cognition. This was partially because, with “aging” itself as the primary input to the model, it was not possible to afford a role for experience, genetics, and environment to influence the course of aging and, in turn, level of cognitive function. The increasing evidence that these broad factors are important determinants of the trajectories of neural and cognitive function (e.g., Agrigoroaei and Lachman 2011; Albert et al. 1995; Bender and Raz 2012; Anstey and Cherbuin 2012; Anstey 2008; Boron et al. 2012; de Frias et al. 2014; Stiehler et al. 2009; Zanjani et al. 2013) provides a sound basis for revising STAC to recognize the life-course influences on neurocognitive aging. Thus the revised model, which we refer to as “STAC-r”, now incorporates life-course variables that impact structure and function of the aging brain (see Fig. 2). We use the term "life course” to mean the accumulation of experiences and states an individual has experienced from birth to death (Mayer 2002). The model indicates that both life-span (aging) and life-course (experience) variables impact the structure and function of the brain and also directly affect the development of compensatory scaffolding, a construct that retains the core features from the original model that were described above. The next sections, consider the new components of the STAC-r model.Fig. 2


How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition.

Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC - Neuropsychol Rev (2014)

A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition-revised (STAC-r)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150993&req=5

Fig2: A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition-revised (STAC-r)
Mentions: The STAC model predicts cognitive function at a single time point during an individual’s lifespan with a focus on later-life cognition. This was partially because, with “aging” itself as the primary input to the model, it was not possible to afford a role for experience, genetics, and environment to influence the course of aging and, in turn, level of cognitive function. The increasing evidence that these broad factors are important determinants of the trajectories of neural and cognitive function (e.g., Agrigoroaei and Lachman 2011; Albert et al. 1995; Bender and Raz 2012; Anstey and Cherbuin 2012; Anstey 2008; Boron et al. 2012; de Frias et al. 2014; Stiehler et al. 2009; Zanjani et al. 2013) provides a sound basis for revising STAC to recognize the life-course influences on neurocognitive aging. Thus the revised model, which we refer to as “STAC-r”, now incorporates life-course variables that impact structure and function of the aging brain (see Fig. 2). We use the term "life course” to mean the accumulation of experiences and states an individual has experienced from birth to death (Mayer 2002). The model indicates that both life-span (aging) and life-course (experience) variables impact the structure and function of the brain and also directly affect the development of compensatory scaffolding, a construct that retains the core features from the original model that were described above. The next sections, consider the new components of the STAC-r model.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time.Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline.The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA, parl@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
"The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC)", proposed in 2009, is a conceptual model of cognitive aging that integrated evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging to explain how the combined effects of adverse and compensatory neural processes produce varying levels of cognitive function. The model made clear and testable predictions about how different brain variables, both structural and functional, were related to cognitive function, focusing on the core construct of compensatory scaffolding. The present paper provides a revised model that integrates new evidence about the aging brain that has emerged since STAC was published 5 years ago. Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time. Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline. The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions. STAC-r goes beyond the previous model by combining a life-span approach with a life-course approach to understand and predict cognitive status and rate of cognitive change over time.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus