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How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition.

Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC - Neuropsychol Rev (2014)

Bottom Line: Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time.Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline.The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA, parl@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
"The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC)", proposed in 2009, is a conceptual model of cognitive aging that integrated evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging to explain how the combined effects of adverse and compensatory neural processes produce varying levels of cognitive function. The model made clear and testable predictions about how different brain variables, both structural and functional, were related to cognitive function, focusing on the core construct of compensatory scaffolding. The present paper provides a revised model that integrates new evidence about the aging brain that has emerged since STAC was published 5 years ago. Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time. Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline. The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions. STAC-r goes beyond the previous model by combining a life-span approach with a life-course approach to understand and predict cognitive status and rate of cognitive change over time.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig1: A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009)

Mentions: The STAC model as originally conceived and depicted in Fig. 1, includes the following basic principles to explain an older individual’s level of cognitive function. First, relative to younger adults, healthy older adults are affected by varying degrees of neural degradation, which were categorized as “neural challenges” and “functional deterioration,” respectively. Neural challenges are primarily structural changes in the brain that occur with age, including cortical thinning and regional atrophy, loss of white matter integrity, and dopamine depletion. Functional deterioration refers to indicators of maladaptive, age-related brain activity that have been very well documented in the imaging literature including dedifferentiation (decreased specificity) of ventral-visual and motor areas (Park et al. 2004; Voss et al. 2008; Bernard and Seidler 2012), decreased memory-related recruitment of medial temporal lobe regions (Cabeza et al. 2004; Gutchess et al. 2005) and dysregulation of the default mode network (Lustig et al. 2003; Persson et al. 2007; for a review, see Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park 2010).Fig. 1


How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition.

Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC - Neuropsychol Rev (2014)

A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150993&req=5

Fig1: A conceptual model of the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition (STAC) (Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009)
Mentions: The STAC model as originally conceived and depicted in Fig. 1, includes the following basic principles to explain an older individual’s level of cognitive function. First, relative to younger adults, healthy older adults are affected by varying degrees of neural degradation, which were categorized as “neural challenges” and “functional deterioration,” respectively. Neural challenges are primarily structural changes in the brain that occur with age, including cortical thinning and regional atrophy, loss of white matter integrity, and dopamine depletion. Functional deterioration refers to indicators of maladaptive, age-related brain activity that have been very well documented in the imaging literature including dedifferentiation (decreased specificity) of ventral-visual and motor areas (Park et al. 2004; Voss et al. 2008; Bernard and Seidler 2012), decreased memory-related recruitment of medial temporal lobe regions (Cabeza et al. 2004; Gutchess et al. 2005) and dysregulation of the default mode network (Lustig et al. 2003; Persson et al. 2007; for a review, see Park and Reuter-Lorenz 2009; Reuter-Lorenz and Park 2010).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time.Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline.The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, The University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA, parl@umich.edu.

ABSTRACT
"The Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC)", proposed in 2009, is a conceptual model of cognitive aging that integrated evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging to explain how the combined effects of adverse and compensatory neural processes produce varying levels of cognitive function. The model made clear and testable predictions about how different brain variables, both structural and functional, were related to cognitive function, focusing on the core construct of compensatory scaffolding. The present paper provides a revised model that integrates new evidence about the aging brain that has emerged since STAC was published 5 years ago. Unlike the original STAC model, STAC-r incorporates life-course factors that serve to enhance or deplete neural resources, thereby influencing the developmental course of brain structure and function, as well as cognition, over time. Life-course factors also influence compensatory processes that are engaged to meet cognitive challenge, and to ameliorate the adverse effects of structural and functional decline. The revised model is discussed in relation to recent lifespan and longitudinal data as well as emerging evidence about the effects of training interventions. STAC-r goes beyond the previous model by combining a life-span approach with a life-course approach to understand and predict cognitive status and rate of cognitive change over time.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus