Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models.
Bottom Line: These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula's path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length.The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax.This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11).
Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The distance between the bony landmarks on the scapula medial border and the ellipse representing the STGP are of a similar order to the landmarks׳ resting distances, although the TS distance can be up to twice the resting distance (Fig. 4).
Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.