Scaling and kinematics optimisation of the scapula and thorax in upper limb musculoskeletal models.
Bottom Line: These rely on thorax scaling to effectively define the scapula's path but do not consider the area underneath the scapula in scaling, and assume a fixed conoid ligament length.The scapula and clavicle kinematics are optimised with the constraint that the scapula medial border does not penetrate the thorax.This method is simulated in the UK National Shoulder Model and compared to four other methods, including the standard technique, during three pull-up techniques (n=11).
Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Eleven consenting subjects participated (mean age: 26±3 years). Three pull-up types were performed: front, wide and reverse (Fig. 1). Subjects were instructed to perform a maximal upward movement: from hanging with arms straight to full elevation (chin above the bar). Mean activity time was 1.2 s, with ranges of: 0.8–2.2, 0.9–1.6 and 0.9–1.8 s for the front, wide and reverse pull-ups respectively. Legs were kept in a fixed position with posterior-facing heels (Fig. 1). Pull-ups dynamically cover large ranges of motion: 23–126° humerothoracic elevation and −56−10° humerothoracic axial rotation.
Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.