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Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost.

Tate DF, LaRose JG, Griffin LP, Erickson KE, Robichaud EF, Perdue L, Espeland MA, Wing RR - Trials (2014)

Bottom Line: Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults.The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2).Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. dtate@unc.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP).

Methods: We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic.

Results: The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited.

Conclusions: These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Recruitment of subgroups by mass mailing and email. Note: percent recruited with mass mailing and email within subgroups will not add to 100% as those recruited with other methods are not displayed.
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Fig4: Recruitment of subgroups by mass mailing and email. Note: percent recruited with mass mailing and email within subgroups will not add to 100% as those recruited with other methods are not displayed.

Mentions: The top two methods reported for recruitment of the final study sample are presented in Figure 4 by age, sex, race and BMI at study entry. Logistic regression models demonstrated that certain recruitment approaches were more effective in recruiting subgroups of participants. Mass mailing was identified as the recruitment source by a greater proportion of the older compared to younger participants: OR = 2.84 (1.89, 4.48). Email/listserv was noted by more African-American participants compared to non-Hispanic whites: OR = 1.99 (1.12, 3.55) and by more normal weight compared to overweight participants: OR = 1.82 (1.19, 2.78). Word of mouth was more effective in recruiting women: OR = 2.11 (1.04, 4.29), younger individuals: OR = 2.03 (1.23, 3.35) and overweight individuals: OR = 1.93 (1.13, 3.30). Flyers and newspapers each attracted very few participants, but flyers were relatively more successful for younger individuals: OR = 2.64 (1.20, 5.81) and newspapers for normal weight, compared to overweight individuals: OR = 3.92 (1.00, 15.07).Figure 4


Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost.

Tate DF, LaRose JG, Griffin LP, Erickson KE, Robichaud EF, Perdue L, Espeland MA, Wing RR - Trials (2014)

Recruitment of subgroups by mass mailing and email. Note: percent recruited with mass mailing and email within subgroups will not add to 100% as those recruited with other methods are not displayed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150977&req=5

Fig4: Recruitment of subgroups by mass mailing and email. Note: percent recruited with mass mailing and email within subgroups will not add to 100% as those recruited with other methods are not displayed.
Mentions: The top two methods reported for recruitment of the final study sample are presented in Figure 4 by age, sex, race and BMI at study entry. Logistic regression models demonstrated that certain recruitment approaches were more effective in recruiting subgroups of participants. Mass mailing was identified as the recruitment source by a greater proportion of the older compared to younger participants: OR = 2.84 (1.89, 4.48). Email/listserv was noted by more African-American participants compared to non-Hispanic whites: OR = 1.99 (1.12, 3.55) and by more normal weight compared to overweight participants: OR = 1.82 (1.19, 2.78). Word of mouth was more effective in recruiting women: OR = 2.11 (1.04, 4.29), younger individuals: OR = 2.03 (1.23, 3.35) and overweight individuals: OR = 1.93 (1.13, 3.30). Flyers and newspapers each attracted very few participants, but flyers were relatively more successful for younger individuals: OR = 2.64 (1.20, 5.81) and newspapers for normal weight, compared to overweight individuals: OR = 3.92 (1.00, 15.07).Figure 4

Bottom Line: Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults.The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2).Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. dtate@unc.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP).

Methods: We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic.

Results: The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited.

Conclusions: These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus