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Role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its effects on embryonic stem cells.

Kim YS, Yi BR, Kim NH, Choi KC - Exp. Mol. Med. (2014)

Bottom Line: These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors.Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process.In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for embryonic development and the formation of various tissues or organs. However, EMT dysfunction in normal cells leads to diseases, such as cancer or fibrosis. During the EMT, epithelial cells are converted into more invasive and active mesenchymal cells. E-box-binding proteins, including Snail, ZEB and helix-loop-helix family members, serve as EMT-activating transcription factors. These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors. Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process. Although the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in cancer or embryonic development have been identified, the mechanism(s) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remain unclear. In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Potential effect of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Transcription factors, that is, the snail family, and regulatory factors, that is, microRNA, that regulate downstream signaling pathways associated with the EMT response might affect EMT in ESCs. ESCs (embryo blastocyst; undifferentiated) differentiate into many cell types in the body, suggesting that EMT might be involved in the differentiation of ESCs.
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fig2: Potential effect of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Transcription factors, that is, the snail family, and regulatory factors, that is, microRNA, that regulate downstream signaling pathways associated with the EMT response might affect EMT in ESCs. ESCs (embryo blastocyst; undifferentiated) differentiate into many cell types in the body, suggesting that EMT might be involved in the differentiation of ESCs.

Mentions: EMT is important for embryonic development, and this process affects metastasis and the invasion of various cancers. Several molecules, including TGF-β and other growth factors, induce EMT. These factors bind to their respective receptors and might also interact with each other. As shown in Figure 1, various signaling pathways (for example, the TGF-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and RTK signaling pathways) might be critical for the induction of EMT. ESCs are pluripotent, suggesting that these cells can differentiate into many cell types (Figure 2). Although the exact mechanism(s) underlying EMT activity has not been clarified in these cells, ESCs might be controlled through EMT under various circumstances during differentiation. Transcriptional activators of EMT, such as snail and ZEB, have also been implicated in the differentiation of ESCs, and regulating factors, such as the microRNA family, specifically promoted or inhibited EMT at the pluripotent cell stage. Thus, ESCs remain at either the pluripotent stage or the more differentiated stage. EMT and regulating factors regulate the differentiation of ESCs. Because ESCs, rather than epiblast stem cells, are more undifferentiated, these cells undergo EMT differentiation, suggesting that this process contributes to naïve and primed cell types. Thus, further studies should examine the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in ESCs required to generate transgenic organisms and induced pluripotent stem cells in order to develop the treatments for diseases using stem cells.


Role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its effects on embryonic stem cells.

Kim YS, Yi BR, Kim NH, Choi KC - Exp. Mol. Med. (2014)

Potential effect of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Transcription factors, that is, the snail family, and regulatory factors, that is, microRNA, that regulate downstream signaling pathways associated with the EMT response might affect EMT in ESCs. ESCs (embryo blastocyst; undifferentiated) differentiate into many cell types in the body, suggesting that EMT might be involved in the differentiation of ESCs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150931&req=5

fig2: Potential effect of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Transcription factors, that is, the snail family, and regulatory factors, that is, microRNA, that regulate downstream signaling pathways associated with the EMT response might affect EMT in ESCs. ESCs (embryo blastocyst; undifferentiated) differentiate into many cell types in the body, suggesting that EMT might be involved in the differentiation of ESCs.
Mentions: EMT is important for embryonic development, and this process affects metastasis and the invasion of various cancers. Several molecules, including TGF-β and other growth factors, induce EMT. These factors bind to their respective receptors and might also interact with each other. As shown in Figure 1, various signaling pathways (for example, the TGF-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and RTK signaling pathways) might be critical for the induction of EMT. ESCs are pluripotent, suggesting that these cells can differentiate into many cell types (Figure 2). Although the exact mechanism(s) underlying EMT activity has not been clarified in these cells, ESCs might be controlled through EMT under various circumstances during differentiation. Transcriptional activators of EMT, such as snail and ZEB, have also been implicated in the differentiation of ESCs, and regulating factors, such as the microRNA family, specifically promoted or inhibited EMT at the pluripotent cell stage. Thus, ESCs remain at either the pluripotent stage or the more differentiated stage. EMT and regulating factors regulate the differentiation of ESCs. Because ESCs, rather than epiblast stem cells, are more undifferentiated, these cells undergo EMT differentiation, suggesting that this process contributes to naïve and primed cell types. Thus, further studies should examine the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in ESCs required to generate transgenic organisms and induced pluripotent stem cells in order to develop the treatments for diseases using stem cells.

Bottom Line: These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors.Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process.In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for embryonic development and the formation of various tissues or organs. However, EMT dysfunction in normal cells leads to diseases, such as cancer or fibrosis. During the EMT, epithelial cells are converted into more invasive and active mesenchymal cells. E-box-binding proteins, including Snail, ZEB and helix-loop-helix family members, serve as EMT-activating transcription factors. These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors. Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process. Although the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in cancer or embryonic development have been identified, the mechanism(s) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remain unclear. In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus