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The influence of early aging on eye movements during motor simulation.

McCormick SA, Causer J, Holmes PS - Age (Dordr) (2014)

Bottom Line: Movement based interventions such as imagery and action observation are used increasingly to support physical rehabilitation of adults during early aging.Using eye movement metrics this paper reports findings that question the congruency of the three conditions.This concern for imagery was also seen in the less congruent temporal relationship in movement time between imagery and movement execution suggesting imagery inaccuracy in early aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Motor Function Group, Institute for Performance Research, Manchester Metropolitan University Cheshire Faculty, Crewe Green Road, Crewe Cheshire, CW1 5DU, UK.

ABSTRACT
Movement based interventions such as imagery and action observation are used increasingly to support physical rehabilitation of adults during early aging. The efficacy of these more covert approaches is based on an intuitively appealing assumption that movement execution, imagery and observation share neural substrate; alteration of one influences directly the function of the other two. Using eye movement metrics this paper reports findings that question the congruency of the three conditions. The data reveal that simulating movement through imagery and action observation may offer older adults movement practice conditions that are not constrained by the age-related decline observed in physical conditions. In addition, the findings provide support for action observation as a more effective technique for movement reproduction in comparison to imagery. This concern for imagery was also seen in the less congruent temporal relationship in movement time between imagery and movement execution suggesting imagery inaccuracy in early aging.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Example experimental series to the small target. Each series began with action execution, followed by imagery, observation and control (counterbalanced). The series were repeated (counterbalanced) for all three target sizes
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Fig2: Example experimental series to the small target. Each series began with action execution, followed by imagery, observation and control (counterbalanced). The series were repeated (counterbalanced) for all three target sizes

Mentions: Participants were fitted with the eye tracking system and initially performed a single habituation block of the VFT using a target that was a different size (15 mm2) to the experimental tasks. Participants were then assigned to one of three starting series defined by target size (small, medium, large). Each series began with one block (11 repeated reach tasks) of AE, followed by one block of each of the other conditions (i.e. MI, AO, and Control, counterbalanced; see Fig. 2). Preceding the covert conditions with AE was a necessity to maintain equivalent self-referent representations based on stored memories of a prescribed task (Borst and Kosslyn 2008). Each block consisted of eleven repetitions of the task followed by a 2-minute rest. At the end of the experiment each participant was debriefed fully and manipulation checks were performed to confirm participant compliance in the covert tasks. An in-house questionnaire, using a 7-point Likert-type scale (similar to the MIQ-RS), was used to rate the ease/difficulty associated with their visual and kinesthetic performance in MI and their active visual engagement and kinesthesis in AO.Fig. 2


The influence of early aging on eye movements during motor simulation.

McCormick SA, Causer J, Holmes PS - Age (Dordr) (2014)

Example experimental series to the small target. Each series began with action execution, followed by imagery, observation and control (counterbalanced). The series were repeated (counterbalanced) for all three target sizes
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150898&req=5

Fig2: Example experimental series to the small target. Each series began with action execution, followed by imagery, observation and control (counterbalanced). The series were repeated (counterbalanced) for all three target sizes
Mentions: Participants were fitted with the eye tracking system and initially performed a single habituation block of the VFT using a target that was a different size (15 mm2) to the experimental tasks. Participants were then assigned to one of three starting series defined by target size (small, medium, large). Each series began with one block (11 repeated reach tasks) of AE, followed by one block of each of the other conditions (i.e. MI, AO, and Control, counterbalanced; see Fig. 2). Preceding the covert conditions with AE was a necessity to maintain equivalent self-referent representations based on stored memories of a prescribed task (Borst and Kosslyn 2008). Each block consisted of eleven repetitions of the task followed by a 2-minute rest. At the end of the experiment each participant was debriefed fully and manipulation checks were performed to confirm participant compliance in the covert tasks. An in-house questionnaire, using a 7-point Likert-type scale (similar to the MIQ-RS), was used to rate the ease/difficulty associated with their visual and kinesthetic performance in MI and their active visual engagement and kinesthesis in AO.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Movement based interventions such as imagery and action observation are used increasingly to support physical rehabilitation of adults during early aging.Using eye movement metrics this paper reports findings that question the congruency of the three conditions.This concern for imagery was also seen in the less congruent temporal relationship in movement time between imagery and movement execution suggesting imagery inaccuracy in early aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Motor Function Group, Institute for Performance Research, Manchester Metropolitan University Cheshire Faculty, Crewe Green Road, Crewe Cheshire, CW1 5DU, UK.

ABSTRACT
Movement based interventions such as imagery and action observation are used increasingly to support physical rehabilitation of adults during early aging. The efficacy of these more covert approaches is based on an intuitively appealing assumption that movement execution, imagery and observation share neural substrate; alteration of one influences directly the function of the other two. Using eye movement metrics this paper reports findings that question the congruency of the three conditions. The data reveal that simulating movement through imagery and action observation may offer older adults movement practice conditions that are not constrained by the age-related decline observed in physical conditions. In addition, the findings provide support for action observation as a more effective technique for movement reproduction in comparison to imagery. This concern for imagery was also seen in the less congruent temporal relationship in movement time between imagery and movement execution suggesting imagery inaccuracy in early aging.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus