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Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders.

Laube N, Berg W, Bernsmann F, Gravius S, Klein F, Latz S, Mallek Dv, Porowski T, Randau T, Wasilewska A, Fisang C - EPMA J (2014)

Bottom Line: In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity.Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deutsches Harnsteinzentrum, Urologisches Zentrum Bonn Friedensplatz, Friedensplatz 16, Bonn 53111, Germany ; NTTF Coatings GmbH, Maarweg 32, Rheinbreitbach 53619, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Optical and SEM images of calcium oxalate crystals found in native urinary sediment (crystal sizes range between ≈ 20 and ≈ 35 μm). Besides the typical whewellite crystals in egg, hour glass and barbell shapes and characteristic letter envelope shapes (tetragonal bipyramids) of weddellite crystals, numerous other crystal habits can be observed. Besides dodecahedrons of weddellite crystals, longitudinal-oval plates and mulberry habits of whewellite and twinnings also occur as well as characteristically ‘constricted’ whewellite crystals in oval shape. The simultaneous occurrence of egg, hour glass and barbell shapes at whewellite crystals can be attributed to their typically (deepened) bi-concave barbell shape. The existence of numerous habits of a mineral phase can be explained by different supersaturation conditions, diffusive processes and adsorption processes of foreign ions (e.g. [Mg2+], [P2O7]4-, [C6H5O7]3-) on preferred crystal surfaces thereby (potentially) inhibiting or promoting the growth rate of a particular crystallographic direction, which eventually leads to crystals showing different morphologies.
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Figure 4: Optical and SEM images of calcium oxalate crystals found in native urinary sediment (crystal sizes range between ≈ 20 and ≈ 35 μm). Besides the typical whewellite crystals in egg, hour glass and barbell shapes and characteristic letter envelope shapes (tetragonal bipyramids) of weddellite crystals, numerous other crystal habits can be observed. Besides dodecahedrons of weddellite crystals, longitudinal-oval plates and mulberry habits of whewellite and twinnings also occur as well as characteristically ‘constricted’ whewellite crystals in oval shape. The simultaneous occurrence of egg, hour glass and barbell shapes at whewellite crystals can be attributed to their typically (deepened) bi-concave barbell shape. The existence of numerous habits of a mineral phase can be explained by different supersaturation conditions, diffusive processes and adsorption processes of foreign ions (e.g. [Mg2+], [P2O7]4-, [C6H5O7]3-) on preferred crystal surfaces thereby (potentially) inhibiting or promoting the growth rate of a particular crystallographic direction, which eventually leads to crystals showing different morphologies.

Mentions: The influence of minor urinary components must not be underestimated. Small concentrations of contaminants/impurities (e.g. foreign ions, mucoproteins built in the crystal structure during growth) can lead to a modified habit (Figures 4 and5) changing the growth rate (crystal poisoning) and may have an overproportional impact on crystal formation. Inhibitors from, inter alia, the group of bisphosphonates (used in osteoporosis treatment), proteins and polycarboxylates can show a significant impact on crystal formation at concentrations in the order of magnitude of 1 ppm[38-41]. However, it will be impossible to determine the concentrations of all urinary constituents[42] or their particular interactions within their specific chemical formation environment.


Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders.

Laube N, Berg W, Bernsmann F, Gravius S, Klein F, Latz S, Mallek Dv, Porowski T, Randau T, Wasilewska A, Fisang C - EPMA J (2014)

Optical and SEM images of calcium oxalate crystals found in native urinary sediment (crystal sizes range between ≈ 20 and ≈ 35 μm). Besides the typical whewellite crystals in egg, hour glass and barbell shapes and characteristic letter envelope shapes (tetragonal bipyramids) of weddellite crystals, numerous other crystal habits can be observed. Besides dodecahedrons of weddellite crystals, longitudinal-oval plates and mulberry habits of whewellite and twinnings also occur as well as characteristically ‘constricted’ whewellite crystals in oval shape. The simultaneous occurrence of egg, hour glass and barbell shapes at whewellite crystals can be attributed to their typically (deepened) bi-concave barbell shape. The existence of numerous habits of a mineral phase can be explained by different supersaturation conditions, diffusive processes and adsorption processes of foreign ions (e.g. [Mg2+], [P2O7]4-, [C6H5O7]3-) on preferred crystal surfaces thereby (potentially) inhibiting or promoting the growth rate of a particular crystallographic direction, which eventually leads to crystals showing different morphologies.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150547&req=5

Figure 4: Optical and SEM images of calcium oxalate crystals found in native urinary sediment (crystal sizes range between ≈ 20 and ≈ 35 μm). Besides the typical whewellite crystals in egg, hour glass and barbell shapes and characteristic letter envelope shapes (tetragonal bipyramids) of weddellite crystals, numerous other crystal habits can be observed. Besides dodecahedrons of weddellite crystals, longitudinal-oval plates and mulberry habits of whewellite and twinnings also occur as well as characteristically ‘constricted’ whewellite crystals in oval shape. The simultaneous occurrence of egg, hour glass and barbell shapes at whewellite crystals can be attributed to their typically (deepened) bi-concave barbell shape. The existence of numerous habits of a mineral phase can be explained by different supersaturation conditions, diffusive processes and adsorption processes of foreign ions (e.g. [Mg2+], [P2O7]4-, [C6H5O7]3-) on preferred crystal surfaces thereby (potentially) inhibiting or promoting the growth rate of a particular crystallographic direction, which eventually leads to crystals showing different morphologies.
Mentions: The influence of minor urinary components must not be underestimated. Small concentrations of contaminants/impurities (e.g. foreign ions, mucoproteins built in the crystal structure during growth) can lead to a modified habit (Figures 4 and5) changing the growth rate (crystal poisoning) and may have an overproportional impact on crystal formation. Inhibitors from, inter alia, the group of bisphosphonates (used in osteoporosis treatment), proteins and polycarboxylates can show a significant impact on crystal formation at concentrations in the order of magnitude of 1 ppm[38-41]. However, it will be impossible to determine the concentrations of all urinary constituents[42] or their particular interactions within their specific chemical formation environment.

Bottom Line: In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity.Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deutsches Harnsteinzentrum, Urologisches Zentrum Bonn Friedensplatz, Friedensplatz 16, Bonn 53111, Germany ; NTTF Coatings GmbH, Maarweg 32, Rheinbreitbach 53619, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus