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Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders.

Laube N, Berg W, Bernsmann F, Gravius S, Klein F, Latz S, Mallek Dv, Porowski T, Randau T, Wasilewska A, Fisang C - EPMA J (2014)

Bottom Line: In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity.Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deutsches Harnsteinzentrum, Urologisches Zentrum Bonn Friedensplatz, Friedensplatz 16, Bonn 53111, Germany ; NTTF Coatings GmbH, Maarweg 32, Rheinbreitbach 53619, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SEM picture of urinary crystals found in the native sediment of a filtered 24-h urine of a repeatedly ‘mild hypercalciuric’ but non-stone-forming proband (pore size 0.45 μm, urinary pH = 5.81, nitrite positive, calcium excretion = 5.9 mmol/day). Rosette-shaped calcium phosphate (left) coexists with rod-like struvite (mid) and bipyramidal calcium oxalate (right). The morphology-based analysis is confirmed by elemental analysis using SEM-linked energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
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Figure 2: SEM picture of urinary crystals found in the native sediment of a filtered 24-h urine of a repeatedly ‘mild hypercalciuric’ but non-stone-forming proband (pore size 0.45 μm, urinary pH = 5.81, nitrite positive, calcium excretion = 5.9 mmol/day). Rosette-shaped calcium phosphate (left) coexists with rod-like struvite (mid) and bipyramidal calcium oxalate (right). The morphology-based analysis is confirmed by elemental analysis using SEM-linked energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

Mentions: The complexity of salt formation from urine and urine-like solutions is well illustrated by the large number of different minerals found in uroliths and grown from these liquids (Figure 1)[5-14]. As the thermodynamic stability fields of these minerals partly overlap (e.g. pH range in which they show low solubility), they may form in association with others, i.e. in paragenesis (Figure 2). Around 60% of uroliths are binary or ternary mixtures of different minerals[15]. In some cases, a primarily precipitated but thermodynamically metastable mineral phase can transform (stepwise) into a more stable phase (Ostwald's rule), e.g. weddellite → whewellite (Figure 3), brushite → octacalciumphosphate pentahydrate → whitlockite → apatite and uric acid dihydrate → uric acid monohydrate.


Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders.

Laube N, Berg W, Bernsmann F, Gravius S, Klein F, Latz S, Mallek Dv, Porowski T, Randau T, Wasilewska A, Fisang C - EPMA J (2014)

SEM picture of urinary crystals found in the native sediment of a filtered 24-h urine of a repeatedly ‘mild hypercalciuric’ but non-stone-forming proband (pore size 0.45 μm, urinary pH = 5.81, nitrite positive, calcium excretion = 5.9 mmol/day). Rosette-shaped calcium phosphate (left) coexists with rod-like struvite (mid) and bipyramidal calcium oxalate (right). The morphology-based analysis is confirmed by elemental analysis using SEM-linked energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150547&req=5

Figure 2: SEM picture of urinary crystals found in the native sediment of a filtered 24-h urine of a repeatedly ‘mild hypercalciuric’ but non-stone-forming proband (pore size 0.45 μm, urinary pH = 5.81, nitrite positive, calcium excretion = 5.9 mmol/day). Rosette-shaped calcium phosphate (left) coexists with rod-like struvite (mid) and bipyramidal calcium oxalate (right). The morphology-based analysis is confirmed by elemental analysis using SEM-linked energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
Mentions: The complexity of salt formation from urine and urine-like solutions is well illustrated by the large number of different minerals found in uroliths and grown from these liquids (Figure 1)[5-14]. As the thermodynamic stability fields of these minerals partly overlap (e.g. pH range in which they show low solubility), they may form in association with others, i.e. in paragenesis (Figure 2). Around 60% of uroliths are binary or ternary mixtures of different minerals[15]. In some cases, a primarily precipitated but thermodynamically metastable mineral phase can transform (stepwise) into a more stable phase (Ostwald's rule), e.g. weddellite → whewellite (Figure 3), brushite → octacalciumphosphate pentahydrate → whitlockite → apatite and uric acid dihydrate → uric acid monohydrate.

Bottom Line: In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity.Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Deutsches Harnsteinzentrum, Urologisches Zentrum Bonn Friedensplatz, Friedensplatz 16, Bonn 53111, Germany ; NTTF Coatings GmbH, Maarweg 32, Rheinbreitbach 53619, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus