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Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chronic cocaine users choosing money instead of cocaine. Data are functional clusters where chronic cocaine users (CCUs) had greater responses than controls (Controls) for money choices in cross-commodity tasks. Choices were between immediate money and future cocaine (MC: (a), (b)) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM: (c), (d)). Each individual's immediate (now) and future (later) choices were used to isolate activity while viewing (dashed red line) what became money choices (a), (c) and while submitting money choices (b), (d). Activity in the striatal putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus was greater in CCUs while viewing what became money now choices (a) and while executing money later choices (d). In addition, activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was greater for money later choices.
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fig5: Chronic cocaine users choosing money instead of cocaine. Data are functional clusters where chronic cocaine users (CCUs) had greater responses than controls (Controls) for money choices in cross-commodity tasks. Choices were between immediate money and future cocaine (MC: (a), (b)) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM: (c), (d)). Each individual's immediate (now) and future (later) choices were used to isolate activity while viewing (dashed red line) what became money choices (a), (c) and while submitting money choices (b), (d). Activity in the striatal putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus was greater in CCUs while viewing what became money now choices (a) and while executing money later choices (d). In addition, activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was greater for money later choices.

Mentions: Imaging results during cross-commodity tasks are presented in Figure 5 and Table 2. During cross-commodity tasks, signals in the striatum and left lateral prefrontal cortex differentiated CCUs from Controls. While viewing options for what became money now choices, CCUs had significantly greater activity in bilateral putamen, globus pallidus, and the left caudate (Figure 5(a)). Activity in the left putamen persisted as CCUs executed money now choices (Figure 5(b)). Groups did not differ while viewing options that became money later choices (Figure 5(c)). However, spatially coincident striatal responses, as well as a response in the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, emerged when CCUs executed money later choices (Figure 5(d)).


Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Chronic cocaine users choosing money instead of cocaine. Data are functional clusters where chronic cocaine users (CCUs) had greater responses than controls (Controls) for money choices in cross-commodity tasks. Choices were between immediate money and future cocaine (MC: (a), (b)) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM: (c), (d)). Each individual's immediate (now) and future (later) choices were used to isolate activity while viewing (dashed red line) what became money choices (a), (c) and while submitting money choices (b), (d). Activity in the striatal putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus was greater in CCUs while viewing what became money now choices (a) and while executing money later choices (d). In addition, activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was greater for money later choices.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig5: Chronic cocaine users choosing money instead of cocaine. Data are functional clusters where chronic cocaine users (CCUs) had greater responses than controls (Controls) for money choices in cross-commodity tasks. Choices were between immediate money and future cocaine (MC: (a), (b)) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM: (c), (d)). Each individual's immediate (now) and future (later) choices were used to isolate activity while viewing (dashed red line) what became money choices (a), (c) and while submitting money choices (b), (d). Activity in the striatal putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus was greater in CCUs while viewing what became money now choices (a) and while executing money later choices (d). In addition, activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was greater for money later choices.
Mentions: Imaging results during cross-commodity tasks are presented in Figure 5 and Table 2. During cross-commodity tasks, signals in the striatum and left lateral prefrontal cortex differentiated CCUs from Controls. While viewing options for what became money now choices, CCUs had significantly greater activity in bilateral putamen, globus pallidus, and the left caudate (Figure 5(a)). Activity in the left putamen persisted as CCUs executed money now choices (Figure 5(b)). Groups did not differ while viewing options that became money later choices (Figure 5(c)). However, spatially coincident striatal responses, as well as a response in the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, emerged when CCUs executed money later choices (Figure 5(d)).

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus