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Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Money and cocaine choices. Data are the averaged (±SEM) percentages of immediate (now) and future (later) choices in controls (Controls) chronic cocaine users (CCUs). Single-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate or future money (MM) or cocaine (CC), and cross-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate money and future cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM). Money and cocaine choices are green and red, respectively. CCUs made fewer choices for future money, compared to Controls (MM and CM). In cross-commodity tasks, CCUs chose cocaine more than Controls. Regardless, a large portion of the choices were for money (MC = 65% and CM = 50%). Incentivizing the future with money resulted in a 15% increase in future choices in CCUs away from the immediate cocaine option (MC = 35% versus CM = 50%). ∗Difference between groups, within task, P < 0.01; #difference, within group, between cross-commodity tasks, P < 0.05.
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fig4: Money and cocaine choices. Data are the averaged (±SEM) percentages of immediate (now) and future (later) choices in controls (Controls) chronic cocaine users (CCUs). Single-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate or future money (MM) or cocaine (CC), and cross-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate money and future cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM). Money and cocaine choices are green and red, respectively. CCUs made fewer choices for future money, compared to Controls (MM and CM). In cross-commodity tasks, CCUs chose cocaine more than Controls. Regardless, a large portion of the choices were for money (MC = 65% and CM = 50%). Incentivizing the future with money resulted in a 15% increase in future choices in CCUs away from the immediate cocaine option (MC = 35% versus CM = 50%). ∗Difference between groups, within task, P < 0.01; #difference, within group, between cross-commodity tasks, P < 0.05.

Mentions: The group percentages (mean ± SEM) for all immediate and delayed choices in each group are displayed in Figure 4. During the MM task, the percentage of delayed money choices made by CCUs (40 ± 4.9) was significantly less than Controls (58 ± 4.7) (t(48) = 2.5, P = 0.016). No difference was observed between groups during the CC task (t(48) = 0.62, n.s.). During the cross-commodity MC task, CCUs made significantly more delayed cocaine responses (35 ± 4.3) than Controls (17 ± 5.3) (t(48) = 2.7, P = 0.01). During the cross-commodity CM task, CCUs made significantly less delayed money responses (50 ± 6.4) than Controls (92 ± 3.8) (t(40) = 5.5, P < 0.001). Examining the proportion of choices within groups during the cross-commodity tasks revealed that behavioral choices followed the money commodity in both groups. This can be seen as the proportion of delayed responses between MC and CM significantly differed, in favor of the money option, in both Controls (t(24) = 9.0, P < .001) and CCUs (t(24) = 2.4, P = 0.03).


Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Money and cocaine choices. Data are the averaged (±SEM) percentages of immediate (now) and future (later) choices in controls (Controls) chronic cocaine users (CCUs). Single-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate or future money (MM) or cocaine (CC), and cross-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate money and future cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM). Money and cocaine choices are green and red, respectively. CCUs made fewer choices for future money, compared to Controls (MM and CM). In cross-commodity tasks, CCUs chose cocaine more than Controls. Regardless, a large portion of the choices were for money (MC = 65% and CM = 50%). Incentivizing the future with money resulted in a 15% increase in future choices in CCUs away from the immediate cocaine option (MC = 35% versus CM = 50%). ∗Difference between groups, within task, P < 0.01; #difference, within group, between cross-commodity tasks, P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig4: Money and cocaine choices. Data are the averaged (±SEM) percentages of immediate (now) and future (later) choices in controls (Controls) chronic cocaine users (CCUs). Single-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate or future money (MM) or cocaine (CC), and cross-commodity choice involved choosing between immediate money and future cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine and future money (CM). Money and cocaine choices are green and red, respectively. CCUs made fewer choices for future money, compared to Controls (MM and CM). In cross-commodity tasks, CCUs chose cocaine more than Controls. Regardless, a large portion of the choices were for money (MC = 65% and CM = 50%). Incentivizing the future with money resulted in a 15% increase in future choices in CCUs away from the immediate cocaine option (MC = 35% versus CM = 50%). ∗Difference between groups, within task, P < 0.01; #difference, within group, between cross-commodity tasks, P < 0.05.
Mentions: The group percentages (mean ± SEM) for all immediate and delayed choices in each group are displayed in Figure 4. During the MM task, the percentage of delayed money choices made by CCUs (40 ± 4.9) was significantly less than Controls (58 ± 4.7) (t(48) = 2.5, P = 0.016). No difference was observed between groups during the CC task (t(48) = 0.62, n.s.). During the cross-commodity MC task, CCUs made significantly more delayed cocaine responses (35 ± 4.3) than Controls (17 ± 5.3) (t(48) = 2.7, P = 0.01). During the cross-commodity CM task, CCUs made significantly less delayed money responses (50 ± 6.4) than Controls (92 ± 3.8) (t(40) = 5.5, P < 0.001). Examining the proportion of choices within groups during the cross-commodity tasks revealed that behavioral choices followed the money commodity in both groups. This can be seen as the proportion of delayed responses between MC and CM significantly differed, in favor of the money option, in both Controls (t(24) = 9.0, P < .001) and CCUs (t(24) = 2.4, P = 0.03).

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus