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Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Temporal discounting behavior. (a) Indifference amounts (mean ± SEM) at each of four future time points (1, 4, 26, and 52 weeks) in nonexclusive responders in each group for single-commodity and cross-commodity tasks. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM) or cocaine (CC). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM). (b) Comparison of indifference magnitudes, measured by area under the indifference curves in each task. Larger magnitudes reflect more value placed on the future. Conversely, smaller values reflect less value placed on the future. CCUs devalued future money and cocaine more than Controls during single-commodity tasks. During cross-commodity tasks, arrows point out that while CCUs devalue delayed money more than Controls, they valued delayed money significantly more than delayed cocaine. *P < 0.01.
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fig3: Temporal discounting behavior. (a) Indifference amounts (mean ± SEM) at each of four future time points (1, 4, 26, and 52 weeks) in nonexclusive responders in each group for single-commodity and cross-commodity tasks. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM) or cocaine (CC). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM). (b) Comparison of indifference magnitudes, measured by area under the indifference curves in each task. Larger magnitudes reflect more value placed on the future. Conversely, smaller values reflect less value placed on the future. CCUs devalued future money and cocaine more than Controls during single-commodity tasks. During cross-commodity tasks, arrows point out that while CCUs devalue delayed money more than Controls, they valued delayed money significantly more than delayed cocaine. *P < 0.01.

Mentions: In the first stream, average indifference magnitudes (±SEM) revealed the value each group placed on future commodities. These results are shown in Figure 3. In the single-commodity tasks a main effect of group was observed when examining indifference magnitudes (F(1, 75) = 39.871, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the indifference magnitudes (mean ± SEM) in the MM task were significantly less in CCUs (837 ± 146), compared to Controls (1896 ± 152) (t(43) = 5.170, P < 0.001). Similarly, indifference magnitudes in the CC task were significantly less in CCUs (612 ± 132), compared to Controls (1921 ± 232) (t(32) = 3.783, P = 0.001). Within-group analysis of single-commodity tasks revealed that indifference magnitudes did not differ between MM and CC within Controls (t(31) = 0.92, n.s). Similarly, indifference magnitudes did not differ between MM and CC within CCUs (t(31) = 0.92, n.s.).


Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Temporal discounting behavior. (a) Indifference amounts (mean ± SEM) at each of four future time points (1, 4, 26, and 52 weeks) in nonexclusive responders in each group for single-commodity and cross-commodity tasks. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM) or cocaine (CC). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM). (b) Comparison of indifference magnitudes, measured by area under the indifference curves in each task. Larger magnitudes reflect more value placed on the future. Conversely, smaller values reflect less value placed on the future. CCUs devalued future money and cocaine more than Controls during single-commodity tasks. During cross-commodity tasks, arrows point out that while CCUs devalue delayed money more than Controls, they valued delayed money significantly more than delayed cocaine. *P < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150492&req=5

fig3: Temporal discounting behavior. (a) Indifference amounts (mean ± SEM) at each of four future time points (1, 4, 26, and 52 weeks) in nonexclusive responders in each group for single-commodity and cross-commodity tasks. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM) or cocaine (CC). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM). (b) Comparison of indifference magnitudes, measured by area under the indifference curves in each task. Larger magnitudes reflect more value placed on the future. Conversely, smaller values reflect less value placed on the future. CCUs devalued future money and cocaine more than Controls during single-commodity tasks. During cross-commodity tasks, arrows point out that while CCUs devalue delayed money more than Controls, they valued delayed money significantly more than delayed cocaine. *P < 0.01.
Mentions: In the first stream, average indifference magnitudes (±SEM) revealed the value each group placed on future commodities. These results are shown in Figure 3. In the single-commodity tasks a main effect of group was observed when examining indifference magnitudes (F(1, 75) = 39.871, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the indifference magnitudes (mean ± SEM) in the MM task were significantly less in CCUs (837 ± 146), compared to Controls (1896 ± 152) (t(43) = 5.170, P < 0.001). Similarly, indifference magnitudes in the CC task were significantly less in CCUs (612 ± 132), compared to Controls (1921 ± 232) (t(32) = 3.783, P = 0.001). Within-group analysis of single-commodity tasks revealed that indifference magnitudes did not differ between MM and CC within Controls (t(31) = 0.92, n.s). Similarly, indifference magnitudes did not differ between MM and CC within CCUs (t(31) = 0.92, n.s.).

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus