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Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Choice behavior. Pie charts are of the proportion of each group who were exclusive (only chose immediate or delayed options) or nonexclusive (chose both immediate and delayed options) responders in each task. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM, (a)) or cocaine (CC, (b)). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC, (c)) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM, (d)). Based on choice behaviors individuals were included in two analysis streams. In the first analysis stream, nonexclusive responders (percentages displayed) were included in a temporal discounting behavioral analysis. Indifference points based on behavioral choice could not be calculated for exclusive responders, so these individuals were excluded. In the second analysis stream, all individuals (exclusive and nonexclusive responders) were included in a behavioral analysis examining all immediate and delayed choices. Exclusive responders were included according to the commodity they always chose. This analysis determined the individuals to be included in imaging analyses of immediate and delayed choices for each task.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Choice behavior. Pie charts are of the proportion of each group who were exclusive (only chose immediate or delayed options) or nonexclusive (chose both immediate and delayed options) responders in each task. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM, (a)) or cocaine (CC, (b)). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC, (c)) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM, (d)). Based on choice behaviors individuals were included in two analysis streams. In the first analysis stream, nonexclusive responders (percentages displayed) were included in a temporal discounting behavioral analysis. Indifference points based on behavioral choice could not be calculated for exclusive responders, so these individuals were excluded. In the second analysis stream, all individuals (exclusive and nonexclusive responders) were included in a behavioral analysis examining all immediate and delayed choices. Exclusive responders were included according to the commodity they always chose. This analysis determined the individuals to be included in imaging analyses of immediate and delayed choices for each task.

Mentions: Based on the choice behaviors exhibited by participants inside the fMRI scanner (Figure 2), individuals were further analyzed in two analysis streams. We first examined temporal discounting behavior across the four experimental tasks in nonexclusive responders, those individuals for whom indifference points could be calculated based on behavioral choices. The second stream examined behavior and brain activity for all immediate and delayed choices in each task for all individuals, allowing clear distinctions to be made between immediate and delayed money and cocaine choices. We adopted this approach to maximize the validity of the discounting analysis (e.g., only including individuals who switched choice preferences between the immediate and future options allowing calculation of an indifference point) and to maximize the number of individuals included in the imaging analysis (e.g., including individuals who did not switch between immediate and future options according to their exclusive choices).


Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

Wesley MJ, Lohrenz T, Koffarnus MN, McClure SM, De La Garza R, Salas R, Thompson-Lake DG, Newton TF, Bickel WK, Montague PR - J Addict (2014)

Choice behavior. Pie charts are of the proportion of each group who were exclusive (only chose immediate or delayed options) or nonexclusive (chose both immediate and delayed options) responders in each task. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM, (a)) or cocaine (CC, (b)). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC, (c)) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM, (d)). Based on choice behaviors individuals were included in two analysis streams. In the first analysis stream, nonexclusive responders (percentages displayed) were included in a temporal discounting behavioral analysis. Indifference points based on behavioral choice could not be calculated for exclusive responders, so these individuals were excluded. In the second analysis stream, all individuals (exclusive and nonexclusive responders) were included in a behavioral analysis examining all immediate and delayed choices. Exclusive responders were included according to the commodity they always chose. This analysis determined the individuals to be included in imaging analyses of immediate and delayed choices for each task.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150492&req=5

fig2: Choice behavior. Pie charts are of the proportion of each group who were exclusive (only chose immediate or delayed options) or nonexclusive (chose both immediate and delayed options) responders in each task. In single-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate or delayed money (MM, (a)) or cocaine (CC, (b)). In cross-commodity tasks individuals chose between immediate money or delayed cocaine (MC, (c)) or between immediate cocaine or delayed money (CM, (d)). Based on choice behaviors individuals were included in two analysis streams. In the first analysis stream, nonexclusive responders (percentages displayed) were included in a temporal discounting behavioral analysis. Indifference points based on behavioral choice could not be calculated for exclusive responders, so these individuals were excluded. In the second analysis stream, all individuals (exclusive and nonexclusive responders) were included in a behavioral analysis examining all immediate and delayed choices. Exclusive responders were included according to the commodity they always chose. This analysis determined the individuals to be included in imaging analyses of immediate and delayed choices for each task.
Mentions: Based on the choice behaviors exhibited by participants inside the fMRI scanner (Figure 2), individuals were further analyzed in two analysis streams. We first examined temporal discounting behavior across the four experimental tasks in nonexclusive responders, those individuals for whom indifference points could be calculated based on behavioral choices. The second stream examined behavior and brain activity for all immediate and delayed choices in each task for all individuals, allowing clear distinctions to be made between immediate and delayed money and cocaine choices. We adopted this approach to maximize the validity of the discounting analysis (e.g., only including individuals who switched choice preferences between the immediate and future options allowing calculation of an indifference point) and to maximize the number of individuals included in the imaging analysis (e.g., including individuals who did not switch between immediate and future options according to their exclusive choices).

Bottom Line: Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed.Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type.We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Virginia Tech, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA ; Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

ABSTRACT
Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus