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MicroRNAs: promising new antiangiogenic targets in cancer.

Gallach S, Calabuig-Fariñas S, Jantus-Lewintre E, Camps C - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression.Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Oncology Laboratory, General University Hospital Research Fundation, Avda Tres Cruces 2, 46014 Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. MicroRNAs contribute to modulating the expression levels of specific proteins based on sequence complementarity with their target mRNA molecules and so they play a key role in both health and disease. Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression. Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells. This review summarises the role of miRNAs in tumour angiogenesis and their potential implications as therapeutic targets in cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

miRNAs involved in angiogenic process. Angiogenesis regulation conducted by different miRNAs is based on a complex network and is summarized in this figure. Red boxes indicate proangiogenic miRNA, green boxes indicate antiangiogenic miRNAs, and dashed circles indicate genes involved in molecular pathway taking place in both tumour and endothelial cells. Grey lines represent inhibitory processes while the blue lines with arrows represent activation processes and the dashed black line represents the ubiquitin-mediated degradation HGS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), SUFU (suppressor of fused), FUS-1 (FUS RNA binding protein), PIK3C2α (phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 2α), THBS1 (thrombospondin-1), HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), HIF-1β (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 beta), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), Spred-1 (sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1), PIK3R2 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2), SCF (stem cell factor), c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase kit), VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), Ets-1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v-ets) oncogene homolog-1), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1), GAX (growth arrest homeobox) and HOXA5 (homeobox A5), RAS (v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), RAF-1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Cul2 (Cullin 2), mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase), and Src (v-src avian sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog).
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fig2: miRNAs involved in angiogenic process. Angiogenesis regulation conducted by different miRNAs is based on a complex network and is summarized in this figure. Red boxes indicate proangiogenic miRNA, green boxes indicate antiangiogenic miRNAs, and dashed circles indicate genes involved in molecular pathway taking place in both tumour and endothelial cells. Grey lines represent inhibitory processes while the blue lines with arrows represent activation processes and the dashed black line represents the ubiquitin-mediated degradation HGS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), SUFU (suppressor of fused), FUS-1 (FUS RNA binding protein), PIK3C2α (phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 2α), THBS1 (thrombospondin-1), HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), HIF-1β (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 beta), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), Spred-1 (sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1), PIK3R2 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2), SCF (stem cell factor), c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase kit), VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), Ets-1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v-ets) oncogene homolog-1), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1), GAX (growth arrest homeobox) and HOXA5 (homeobox A5), RAS (v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), RAF-1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Cul2 (Cullin 2), mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase), and Src (v-src avian sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog).

Mentions: The most important mechanisms and functions involved in EC regulation by miRNAs described above are summarized in Figure 2 and Table 1.


MicroRNAs: promising new antiangiogenic targets in cancer.

Gallach S, Calabuig-Fariñas S, Jantus-Lewintre E, Camps C - Biomed Res Int (2014)

miRNAs involved in angiogenic process. Angiogenesis regulation conducted by different miRNAs is based on a complex network and is summarized in this figure. Red boxes indicate proangiogenic miRNA, green boxes indicate antiangiogenic miRNAs, and dashed circles indicate genes involved in molecular pathway taking place in both tumour and endothelial cells. Grey lines represent inhibitory processes while the blue lines with arrows represent activation processes and the dashed black line represents the ubiquitin-mediated degradation HGS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), SUFU (suppressor of fused), FUS-1 (FUS RNA binding protein), PIK3C2α (phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 2α), THBS1 (thrombospondin-1), HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), HIF-1β (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 beta), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), Spred-1 (sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1), PIK3R2 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2), SCF (stem cell factor), c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase kit), VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), Ets-1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v-ets) oncogene homolog-1), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1), GAX (growth arrest homeobox) and HOXA5 (homeobox A5), RAS (v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), RAF-1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Cul2 (Cullin 2), mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase), and Src (v-src avian sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog).
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fig2: miRNAs involved in angiogenic process. Angiogenesis regulation conducted by different miRNAs is based on a complex network and is summarized in this figure. Red boxes indicate proangiogenic miRNA, green boxes indicate antiangiogenic miRNAs, and dashed circles indicate genes involved in molecular pathway taking place in both tumour and endothelial cells. Grey lines represent inhibitory processes while the blue lines with arrows represent activation processes and the dashed black line represents the ubiquitin-mediated degradation HGS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), SUFU (suppressor of fused), FUS-1 (FUS RNA binding protein), PIK3C2α (phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 2α), THBS1 (thrombospondin-1), HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), HIF-1β (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 beta), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), Spred-1 (sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1), PIK3R2 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2), SCF (stem cell factor), c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase kit), VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), Ets-1 (avian erythroblastosis virus E26 (v-ets) oncogene homolog-1), fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1), GAX (growth arrest homeobox) and HOXA5 (homeobox A5), RAS (v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), RAF-1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1), Cul2 (Cullin 2), mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase), and Src (v-src avian sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog).
Mentions: The most important mechanisms and functions involved in EC regulation by miRNAs described above are summarized in Figure 2 and Table 1.

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression.Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Oncology Laboratory, General University Hospital Research Fundation, Avda Tres Cruces 2, 46014 Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. MicroRNAs contribute to modulating the expression levels of specific proteins based on sequence complementarity with their target mRNA molecules and so they play a key role in both health and disease. Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression. Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells. This review summarises the role of miRNAs in tumour angiogenesis and their potential implications as therapeutic targets in cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus