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MicroRNAs: promising new antiangiogenic targets in cancer.

Gallach S, Calabuig-Fariñas S, Jantus-Lewintre E, Camps C - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression.Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Oncology Laboratory, General University Hospital Research Fundation, Avda Tres Cruces 2, 46014 Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. MicroRNAs contribute to modulating the expression levels of specific proteins based on sequence complementarity with their target mRNA molecules and so they play a key role in both health and disease. Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression. Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells. This review summarises the role of miRNAs in tumour angiogenesis and their potential implications as therapeutic targets in cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

miRNA biogenesis: miRNA gene transcription generates primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in the nucleus which is then cleaved by the microprocessor complex (Drosha and DGCR8), liberating pre-miRNA which is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5. Pre-miRNA is finally processed by Dicer and TRBP to obtain a mature miRNA with the capacity to bind to target mRNAs. AGO2: argonaute 2, DGCR8: DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8, miRISC: miRNA bound to RNA-induced silencing complex, ORF: origin replication frame, Pol II: polymerase II, and TRBP: the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating.
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fig1: miRNA biogenesis: miRNA gene transcription generates primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in the nucleus which is then cleaved by the microprocessor complex (Drosha and DGCR8), liberating pre-miRNA which is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5. Pre-miRNA is finally processed by Dicer and TRBP to obtain a mature miRNA with the capacity to bind to target mRNAs. AGO2: argonaute 2, DGCR8: DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8, miRISC: miRNA bound to RNA-induced silencing complex, ORF: origin replication frame, Pol II: polymerase II, and TRBP: the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating.

Mentions: Once a miRNA binds to its target gene, two mechanisms of action are known: (i) mRNA degradation and (ii) translational mRNA inhibition without degradation, the latter of which occurs in animals, including mammals [25]. In the first of these mechanisms the binding is completely complementary between the miRNA and mRNA sequences whereas in the second one, where the bound mRNA remains untranslated, the binding is not completely complementary, resulting in reduced target gene expression (Figure 1). Another important characteristic of miRNAs is that one single miRNA has the potential to regulate many target genes while any one gene can be targeted by multiple miRNAs, meaning that miRNAome-mRNAome interaction can be a complicated network.


MicroRNAs: promising new antiangiogenic targets in cancer.

Gallach S, Calabuig-Fariñas S, Jantus-Lewintre E, Camps C - Biomed Res Int (2014)

miRNA biogenesis: miRNA gene transcription generates primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in the nucleus which is then cleaved by the microprocessor complex (Drosha and DGCR8), liberating pre-miRNA which is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5. Pre-miRNA is finally processed by Dicer and TRBP to obtain a mature miRNA with the capacity to bind to target mRNAs. AGO2: argonaute 2, DGCR8: DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8, miRISC: miRNA bound to RNA-induced silencing complex, ORF: origin replication frame, Pol II: polymerase II, and TRBP: the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150436&req=5

fig1: miRNA biogenesis: miRNA gene transcription generates primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) in the nucleus which is then cleaved by the microprocessor complex (Drosha and DGCR8), liberating pre-miRNA which is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5. Pre-miRNA is finally processed by Dicer and TRBP to obtain a mature miRNA with the capacity to bind to target mRNAs. AGO2: argonaute 2, DGCR8: DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8, miRISC: miRNA bound to RNA-induced silencing complex, ORF: origin replication frame, Pol II: polymerase II, and TRBP: the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating.
Mentions: Once a miRNA binds to its target gene, two mechanisms of action are known: (i) mRNA degradation and (ii) translational mRNA inhibition without degradation, the latter of which occurs in animals, including mammals [25]. In the first of these mechanisms the binding is completely complementary between the miRNA and mRNA sequences whereas in the second one, where the bound mRNA remains untranslated, the binding is not completely complementary, resulting in reduced target gene expression (Figure 1). Another important characteristic of miRNAs is that one single miRNA has the potential to regulate many target genes while any one gene can be targeted by multiple miRNAs, meaning that miRNAome-mRNAome interaction can be a complicated network.

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression.Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Oncology Laboratory, General University Hospital Research Fundation, Avda Tres Cruces 2, 46014 Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs are one class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that are approximately 22 nucleotides in length; they are very numerous, have been phylogenetically conserved, and involved in biological processes such as development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. MicroRNAs contribute to modulating the expression levels of specific proteins based on sequence complementarity with their target mRNA molecules and so they play a key role in both health and disease. Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones, which is particularly relevant to cancer and its progression. Over the last few years, microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of signalling pathways in multiple cell types including endothelial and perivascular cells. This review summarises the role of miRNAs in tumour angiogenesis and their potential implications as therapeutic targets in cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus