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A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures.

Newbold T, Hudson LN, Phillips HR, Hill SL, Contu S, Lysenko I, Blandon A, Butchart SH, Booth HL, Day J, De Palma A, Harrison ML, Kirkpatrick L, Pynegar E, Robinson A, Simpson J, Mace GM, Scharlemann JP, Purvis A - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity.Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups--invertebrates, 'herptiles' (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds--respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests.Responses differ among the four groups considered, and--within birds and mammals--between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK tim.newbold@unep-wcmc.org.

ABSTRACT
Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity. Tropical forests harbour among the highest levels of terrestrial species diversity and are likely to experience rapid land-use change in the coming decades. Synthetic analyses of observed responses of species are useful for quantifying how land use affects biodiversity and for predicting outcomes under land-use scenarios. Previous applications of this approach have typically focused on individual taxonomic groups, analysing the average response of the whole community to changes in land use. Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups--invertebrates, 'herptiles' (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds--respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests. We show significant independent impacts of land use, human vegetation offtake, forest cover and human population density on both occurrence and abundance of species, highlighting the value of analysing multiple explanatory variables simultaneously. Responses differ among the four groups considered, and--within birds and mammals--between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Response of the abundance of 3708 taxa in tropical forests to land use (a), the interaction between human population density and forest cover (b–g), and the interaction between forest cover and vegetation removal (iNDVI; h–m). Panel (a) shows the relative (log-transformed) abundance, relative to the abundance in primary forest; land-use categories considered were: primary forest (PF), secondary forest (SF), plantation forest (WP), cropland (CR), pasture (PA) and urban (UR); only significant terms are shown. Panels (b–m) show absolute (log-transformed) abundance, with separate panels for forest/habitat specialists (spec.) and habitat generalists (gen.). Log-transformed abundance was modelled using linear mixed-effects models, fitting site nested within study and taxon as random effects. Error bars (a) show ±1 s.e. Dashed vertical lines in (a) divide the taxonomic groups; grey vertical lines separate the land-use types when taxonomic groups were also divided by habitat specialization and range size.
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RSPB20141371F3: Response of the abundance of 3708 taxa in tropical forests to land use (a), the interaction between human population density and forest cover (b–g), and the interaction between forest cover and vegetation removal (iNDVI; h–m). Panel (a) shows the relative (log-transformed) abundance, relative to the abundance in primary forest; land-use categories considered were: primary forest (PF), secondary forest (SF), plantation forest (WP), cropland (CR), pasture (PA) and urban (UR); only significant terms are shown. Panels (b–m) show absolute (log-transformed) abundance, with separate panels for forest/habitat specialists (spec.) and habitat generalists (gen.). Log-transformed abundance was modelled using linear mixed-effects models, fitting site nested within study and taxon as random effects. Error bars (a) show ±1 s.e. Dashed vertical lines in (a) divide the taxonomic groups; grey vertical lines separate the land-use types when taxonomic groups were also divided by habitat specialization and range size.

Mentions: Species' abundances responded significantly to land-use type, with large differences among taxonomic groups (table 1 and figure 3a). Narrow-ranged species tended to be less abundant than widespread species in all land-use types but especially in urban environments, croplands and plantation forests (ΔAIC = −47.3; best-fitting model, AIC = 38145; figure 3a). Similarly, among mammals and birds, habitat specialists tended to be less abundant than habitat generalists, especially in urban habitats, croplands and plantation forests (ΔAIC = −15.4; figure 3a). With the exception of invertebrates, species present in secondary forest, wood plantation and cropland were more abundant there than in primary forest, whereas even those species that occurred in urban habitats were less abundant there than in primary forest (figure 3a).Figure 3.


A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures.

Newbold T, Hudson LN, Phillips HR, Hill SL, Contu S, Lysenko I, Blandon A, Butchart SH, Booth HL, Day J, De Palma A, Harrison ML, Kirkpatrick L, Pynegar E, Robinson A, Simpson J, Mace GM, Scharlemann JP, Purvis A - Proc. Biol. Sci. (2014)

Response of the abundance of 3708 taxa in tropical forests to land use (a), the interaction between human population density and forest cover (b–g), and the interaction between forest cover and vegetation removal (iNDVI; h–m). Panel (a) shows the relative (log-transformed) abundance, relative to the abundance in primary forest; land-use categories considered were: primary forest (PF), secondary forest (SF), plantation forest (WP), cropland (CR), pasture (PA) and urban (UR); only significant terms are shown. Panels (b–m) show absolute (log-transformed) abundance, with separate panels for forest/habitat specialists (spec.) and habitat generalists (gen.). Log-transformed abundance was modelled using linear mixed-effects models, fitting site nested within study and taxon as random effects. Error bars (a) show ±1 s.e. Dashed vertical lines in (a) divide the taxonomic groups; grey vertical lines separate the land-use types when taxonomic groups were also divided by habitat specialization and range size.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150326&req=5

RSPB20141371F3: Response of the abundance of 3708 taxa in tropical forests to land use (a), the interaction between human population density and forest cover (b–g), and the interaction between forest cover and vegetation removal (iNDVI; h–m). Panel (a) shows the relative (log-transformed) abundance, relative to the abundance in primary forest; land-use categories considered were: primary forest (PF), secondary forest (SF), plantation forest (WP), cropland (CR), pasture (PA) and urban (UR); only significant terms are shown. Panels (b–m) show absolute (log-transformed) abundance, with separate panels for forest/habitat specialists (spec.) and habitat generalists (gen.). Log-transformed abundance was modelled using linear mixed-effects models, fitting site nested within study and taxon as random effects. Error bars (a) show ±1 s.e. Dashed vertical lines in (a) divide the taxonomic groups; grey vertical lines separate the land-use types when taxonomic groups were also divided by habitat specialization and range size.
Mentions: Species' abundances responded significantly to land-use type, with large differences among taxonomic groups (table 1 and figure 3a). Narrow-ranged species tended to be less abundant than widespread species in all land-use types but especially in urban environments, croplands and plantation forests (ΔAIC = −47.3; best-fitting model, AIC = 38145; figure 3a). Similarly, among mammals and birds, habitat specialists tended to be less abundant than habitat generalists, especially in urban habitats, croplands and plantation forests (ΔAIC = −15.4; figure 3a). With the exception of invertebrates, species present in secondary forest, wood plantation and cropland were more abundant there than in primary forest, whereas even those species that occurred in urban habitats were less abundant there than in primary forest (figure 3a).Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity.Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups--invertebrates, 'herptiles' (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds--respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests.Responses differ among the four groups considered, and--within birds and mammals--between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge CB1 2FB, UK tim.newbold@unep-wcmc.org.

ABSTRACT
Habitat loss and degradation, driven largely by agricultural expansion and intensification, present the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity. Tropical forests harbour among the highest levels of terrestrial species diversity and are likely to experience rapid land-use change in the coming decades. Synthetic analyses of observed responses of species are useful for quantifying how land use affects biodiversity and for predicting outcomes under land-use scenarios. Previous applications of this approach have typically focused on individual taxonomic groups, analysing the average response of the whole community to changes in land use. Here, we incorporate quantitative remotely sensed data about habitats in, to our knowledge, the first worldwide synthetic analysis of how individual species in four major taxonomic groups--invertebrates, 'herptiles' (reptiles and amphibians), mammals and birds--respond to multiple human pressures in tropical and sub-tropical forests. We show significant independent impacts of land use, human vegetation offtake, forest cover and human population density on both occurrence and abundance of species, highlighting the value of analysing multiple explanatory variables simultaneously. Responses differ among the four groups considered, and--within birds and mammals--between habitat specialists and habitat generalists and between narrow-ranged and wide-ranged species.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus