Limits...
Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

Tamisiea ME, Hughes CW, Williams SD, Bingley RM - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records.Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level.Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK mtam@noc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Eastward acceleration of the mean flow by time-dependent eddies, based on 13 years of satellite altimetry data (a dynamically passive, irrotational component has been removed). Contours representing intervals of 20 centimetres show mean dynamic topography based on the DTU10 [16,17] mean sea surface and the TUM2013C geoid [18], averaged over 0.25° blocks and with 25 km Gaussian smoothing applied.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150292&req=5

RSTA20130336F2: Eastward acceleration of the mean flow by time-dependent eddies, based on 13 years of satellite altimetry data (a dynamically passive, irrotational component has been removed). Contours representing intervals of 20 centimetres show mean dynamic topography based on the DTU10 [16,17] mean sea surface and the TUM2013C geoid [18], averaged over 0.25° blocks and with 25 km Gaussian smoothing applied.

Mentions: The many oceanographic breakthroughs from altimetric measurements would require an extensive review article. However, a few examples include the first mapping of global Rossby wave speeds [9] and the recognition that such waves are swept to the east in the Antarctic circumpolar current [10,11]; the discovery of alternating zonal jets throughout much of the ocean [12]; the recognition that much of what had initially been thought of as Rossby waves is in fact nonlinear eddy variability, and the mapping of the eddy characteristics [13]; recognition of large-scale changes in the North Atlantic circulation related to the Meridional overturning circulation [14]; and unravelling of the complex interactions between basin-scale flows, climate modes, Rossby waves and mesoscale eddies in the North Pacific Ocean ([15] and references therein). All of these observations have stimulated theoretical development and improved understanding of the global ocean circulation. Figure 2 (adapted from [19]) shows an example of what can be learned about eddy-mean flow interaction from satellite altimetry. The shading represents the eastward acceleration of the mean flow owing to momentum fluxes carried by time-dependent eddies (measured using altimetry alone), whereas the contours of mean dynamic topography illustrate the mean flow (for which a geoid measurement is also needed). It had been thought that eddies radiated out from jets would tend to exert an eastward acceleration on the jets, but the observations showed a more complicated relationship, indicating that the simple theory is too idealized to apply to the real Southern Ocean, and suggesting that the interaction of eddies with topography is important.Figure 2.


Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

Tamisiea ME, Hughes CW, Williams SD, Bingley RM - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2014)

Eastward acceleration of the mean flow by time-dependent eddies, based on 13 years of satellite altimetry data (a dynamically passive, irrotational component has been removed). Contours representing intervals of 20 centimetres show mean dynamic topography based on the DTU10 [16,17] mean sea surface and the TUM2013C geoid [18], averaged over 0.25° blocks and with 25 km Gaussian smoothing applied.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150292&req=5

RSTA20130336F2: Eastward acceleration of the mean flow by time-dependent eddies, based on 13 years of satellite altimetry data (a dynamically passive, irrotational component has been removed). Contours representing intervals of 20 centimetres show mean dynamic topography based on the DTU10 [16,17] mean sea surface and the TUM2013C geoid [18], averaged over 0.25° blocks and with 25 km Gaussian smoothing applied.
Mentions: The many oceanographic breakthroughs from altimetric measurements would require an extensive review article. However, a few examples include the first mapping of global Rossby wave speeds [9] and the recognition that such waves are swept to the east in the Antarctic circumpolar current [10,11]; the discovery of alternating zonal jets throughout much of the ocean [12]; the recognition that much of what had initially been thought of as Rossby waves is in fact nonlinear eddy variability, and the mapping of the eddy characteristics [13]; recognition of large-scale changes in the North Atlantic circulation related to the Meridional overturning circulation [14]; and unravelling of the complex interactions between basin-scale flows, climate modes, Rossby waves and mesoscale eddies in the North Pacific Ocean ([15] and references therein). All of these observations have stimulated theoretical development and improved understanding of the global ocean circulation. Figure 2 (adapted from [19]) shows an example of what can be learned about eddy-mean flow interaction from satellite altimetry. The shading represents the eastward acceleration of the mean flow owing to momentum fluxes carried by time-dependent eddies (measured using altimetry alone), whereas the contours of mean dynamic topography illustrate the mean flow (for which a geoid measurement is also needed). It had been thought that eddies radiated out from jets would tend to exert an eastward acceleration on the jets, but the observations showed a more complicated relationship, indicating that the simple theory is too idealized to apply to the real Southern Ocean, and suggesting that the interaction of eddies with topography is important.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records.Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level.Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK mtam@noc.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus