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Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden on a national level.

Brustugun OT, Møller B, Helland A - Br. J. Cancer (2014)

Bottom Line: Lung cancer caused almost as many YLL alone (22.1% of cancer-caused YLL) as colon, prostate and breast cancer combined (23.1%).From 1997 to 2012, cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of all YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2%, but with major differences among diagnoses.Public health efforts and research funding should be explicitly directed at preventing premature deaths.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital-The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway [2] Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background: The severity of cancers is often measured in number of deaths. However, number of years of life lost (YLL) may be a more appropriate indicator of impact on society. Here we have calculated the YLL of adult cancers in Norway for the year 2012, as well as for the previous 15-year period.

Methods: Data on age composition, expected remaining years of life, total numbers of deaths and deaths due to cancer were retrieved from the National Census Agency Statistics Norway. YLL were calculated for both sexes aged 25-99 years based on each individual's age at death, and the expected remaining years of life at that age.

Results: Cancer deaths represented 25.8% of all adult deaths in 2012, with a lower fraction of females (28.7% in men and 23.1% in women), whereas cancer represented 35.2% of all YLL, with a higher fraction of females (32.8% in men and 37.8% in women). Females loose on average more life years to cancer than men (14.9 vs 12.7 years). Average YLL varied from 23.7 (cervical cancer) to 7.9 (prostate cancer). Lung cancer caused almost as many YLL alone (22.1% of cancer-caused YLL) as colon, prostate and breast cancer combined (23.1%). From 1997 to 2012, cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of all YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2%, but with major differences among diagnoses.

Conclusions: Cancer is a major and increasing cause of premature deaths, and YLL may be a more accurate measure than number of deaths. Public health efforts and research funding should be explicitly directed at preventing premature deaths.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cancer-caused deaths. Cancer-caused deaths as percentage of all deaths for each sex, and combined (dotted lines) and cancer-caused YLL as percentage of all YLL for each sex, and combined (solid lines) in Norway for the period 1997–2012 (A). Deaths and YLL caused by lung, colon or prostate cancer for men (left panel), and by lung, colon and breast cancer for women (right panel) as percentage of all cancer deaths and YLL per sex in Norway in the period 1997–2012 (B).
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fig5: Cancer-caused deaths. Cancer-caused deaths as percentage of all deaths for each sex, and combined (dotted lines) and cancer-caused YLL as percentage of all YLL for each sex, and combined (solid lines) in Norway for the period 1997–2012 (A). Deaths and YLL caused by lung, colon or prostate cancer for men (left panel), and by lung, colon and breast cancer for women (right panel) as percentage of all cancer deaths and YLL per sex in Norway in the period 1997–2012 (B).

Mentions: Over the last 15 years, the amount of deaths due to cancers in age 25–99 years as a fraction of all deaths in this group increased from 24.3% to 26.2%, whereas cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of total YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2% (Figure 5A). The relative contribution of the main cancers has changed over the period (Figure 5B). Among females, both the number of deaths caused by lung cancer as well as the YLL have increased substantially as a fraction of total cancer, whereas both parameters have decreased for breast cancer (Figure 5B). Also among men, a similar trend is evident—increase, althoug moderate, in lung cancer parameters and decrease in prostate cancer (Figure 5B). The gap between the death curve and the YLL curve decreases with time for both female lung cancer and breast cancer, implying that death caused by these diagnoses now occurs at higher age than before. The relative increase or decrease of YLL caused by the individual cancers, as well as cancer in total, from 1997 to 2012 is shown for both sexes, shown as the ratio of YLL2012 : YLL1997 (Figure 6). Cancer-caused death in males below 25 as a fraction of all cancer-caused death has declined from 0.67% (38 of 5713) to 0.30% (17 of 5762) in the 15-year period, wherease for females, no clear change is seen (27 deaths below 25 out of 5713 in total in 1997 (0.54%), vs 24 out of 5058 (0.47%) in 2012. The total number of deaths below 25 has declined substantially, from 454 deaths among male and 254 among female in 1997 to 293 and 168, respectively in 2012, thus the fraction of cancer-caused death in females aged 0-24 years has increased, whereas it has been stable in males.


Years of life lost as a measure of cancer burden on a national level.

Brustugun OT, Møller B, Helland A - Br. J. Cancer (2014)

Cancer-caused deaths. Cancer-caused deaths as percentage of all deaths for each sex, and combined (dotted lines) and cancer-caused YLL as percentage of all YLL for each sex, and combined (solid lines) in Norway for the period 1997–2012 (A). Deaths and YLL caused by lung, colon or prostate cancer for men (left panel), and by lung, colon and breast cancer for women (right panel) as percentage of all cancer deaths and YLL per sex in Norway in the period 1997–2012 (B).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150272&req=5

fig5: Cancer-caused deaths. Cancer-caused deaths as percentage of all deaths for each sex, and combined (dotted lines) and cancer-caused YLL as percentage of all YLL for each sex, and combined (solid lines) in Norway for the period 1997–2012 (A). Deaths and YLL caused by lung, colon or prostate cancer for men (left panel), and by lung, colon and breast cancer for women (right panel) as percentage of all cancer deaths and YLL per sex in Norway in the period 1997–2012 (B).
Mentions: Over the last 15 years, the amount of deaths due to cancers in age 25–99 years as a fraction of all deaths in this group increased from 24.3% to 26.2%, whereas cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of total YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2% (Figure 5A). The relative contribution of the main cancers has changed over the period (Figure 5B). Among females, both the number of deaths caused by lung cancer as well as the YLL have increased substantially as a fraction of total cancer, whereas both parameters have decreased for breast cancer (Figure 5B). Also among men, a similar trend is evident—increase, althoug moderate, in lung cancer parameters and decrease in prostate cancer (Figure 5B). The gap between the death curve and the YLL curve decreases with time for both female lung cancer and breast cancer, implying that death caused by these diagnoses now occurs at higher age than before. The relative increase or decrease of YLL caused by the individual cancers, as well as cancer in total, from 1997 to 2012 is shown for both sexes, shown as the ratio of YLL2012 : YLL1997 (Figure 6). Cancer-caused death in males below 25 as a fraction of all cancer-caused death has declined from 0.67% (38 of 5713) to 0.30% (17 of 5762) in the 15-year period, wherease for females, no clear change is seen (27 deaths below 25 out of 5713 in total in 1997 (0.54%), vs 24 out of 5058 (0.47%) in 2012. The total number of deaths below 25 has declined substantially, from 454 deaths among male and 254 among female in 1997 to 293 and 168, respectively in 2012, thus the fraction of cancer-caused death in females aged 0-24 years has increased, whereas it has been stable in males.

Bottom Line: Lung cancer caused almost as many YLL alone (22.1% of cancer-caused YLL) as colon, prostate and breast cancer combined (23.1%).From 1997 to 2012, cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of all YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2%, but with major differences among diagnoses.Public health efforts and research funding should be explicitly directed at preventing premature deaths.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital-The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway [2] Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT

Background: The severity of cancers is often measured in number of deaths. However, number of years of life lost (YLL) may be a more appropriate indicator of impact on society. Here we have calculated the YLL of adult cancers in Norway for the year 2012, as well as for the previous 15-year period.

Methods: Data on age composition, expected remaining years of life, total numbers of deaths and deaths due to cancer were retrieved from the National Census Agency Statistics Norway. YLL were calculated for both sexes aged 25-99 years based on each individual's age at death, and the expected remaining years of life at that age.

Results: Cancer deaths represented 25.8% of all adult deaths in 2012, with a lower fraction of females (28.7% in men and 23.1% in women), whereas cancer represented 35.2% of all YLL, with a higher fraction of females (32.8% in men and 37.8% in women). Females loose on average more life years to cancer than men (14.9 vs 12.7 years). Average YLL varied from 23.7 (cervical cancer) to 7.9 (prostate cancer). Lung cancer caused almost as many YLL alone (22.1% of cancer-caused YLL) as colon, prostate and breast cancer combined (23.1%). From 1997 to 2012, cancer-caused YLL as a fraction of all YLL increased from 32.5% to 35.2%, but with major differences among diagnoses.

Conclusions: Cancer is a major and increasing cause of premature deaths, and YLL may be a more accurate measure than number of deaths. Public health efforts and research funding should be explicitly directed at preventing premature deaths.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus