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Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

Jayanegara A, Wina E, Takahashi J - Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not.Although numerically the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating methane was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other.It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins produced less methane per unit of total gas than that of control (p<0.05). Although numerically the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating methane was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of various saponin-rich sources on ruminal CH4 emission in vitro when presented as mL CH4/g dry matter incubated (a) or as ml CH4/100 mL total gas production (b).
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f2-ajas-27-10-1426: Effect of various saponin-rich sources on ruminal CH4 emission in vitro when presented as mL CH4/g dry matter incubated (a) or as ml CH4/100 mL total gas production (b).

Mentions: Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources appeared to produce less CH4 than the control. However, when CH4 was expressed as mL CH4 produced per unit of incubated substrate, only yucca saponins had significantly lower CH4 than control (p<0.05), while quillaja and tea saponins were not different (Figure 2a). But when CH4 was expressed as ml CH4 produced per 100 mL total gas, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins produced less CH4 than that of control (p<0.05) (Figure 2b). Although apparently the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating CH4 was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. All saponin-rich source additions did not decrease total gas production, OMD and total SCFA concentration compared to control (Table 3). Rumen NH3 on the addition of yucca saponins was lower than that of control (p<0.05), while the others were not. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (p<0.05) than that of control when rations were added by all saponin-rich sources. All saponin-rich source additions decreased log protozoal counts significantly (p<0.05).


Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources.

Jayanegara A, Wina E, Takahashi J - Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. (2014)

Effect of various saponin-rich sources on ruminal CH4 emission in vitro when presented as mL CH4/g dry matter incubated (a) or as ml CH4/100 mL total gas production (b).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150175&req=5

f2-ajas-27-10-1426: Effect of various saponin-rich sources on ruminal CH4 emission in vitro when presented as mL CH4/g dry matter incubated (a) or as ml CH4/100 mL total gas production (b).
Mentions: Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources appeared to produce less CH4 than the control. However, when CH4 was expressed as mL CH4 produced per unit of incubated substrate, only yucca saponins had significantly lower CH4 than control (p<0.05), while quillaja and tea saponins were not different (Figure 2a). But when CH4 was expressed as ml CH4 produced per 100 mL total gas, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins produced less CH4 than that of control (p<0.05) (Figure 2b). Although apparently the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating CH4 was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. All saponin-rich source additions did not decrease total gas production, OMD and total SCFA concentration compared to control (Table 3). Rumen NH3 on the addition of yucca saponins was lower than that of control (p<0.05), while the others were not. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (p<0.05) than that of control when rations were added by all saponin-rich sources. All saponin-rich source additions decreased log protozoal counts significantly (p<0.05).

Bottom Line: However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not.Although numerically the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating methane was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other.It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

ABSTRACT
Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (p<0.05). There was a decrease in acetate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) and an increase in propionate proportion (linear pattern; p<0.001) with increasing levels of saponin. Log protozoal count decreased (p<0.05) at higher saponin levels. Comparing between different saponin-rich sources, all saponin sources, i.e. quillaja, tea and yucca saponins produced less methane per unit of total gas than that of control (p<0.05). Although numerically the order of effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating methane was yucca>tea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

No MeSH data available.