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Tales of the unexpected: angiocarpous representatives of the Russulaceae in tropical South East Asia.

Verbeken A, Stubbe D, van de Putte K, Eberhardt U, Nuytinck J - Persoonia (2014)

Bottom Line: The placement of the species within Lactarius and its subgenera is confirmed by a molecular phylogeny based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 markers.The diversity of angiocarpous fungi in tropical areas is considered underestimated and driving evolutionary forces towards gasteromycetization are probably more diverse than generally assumed.The discovery of a large diversity of angiocarpous milkcaps on a rather local tropical scale was unexpected, and especially the fact that in Sri Lanka more angiocarpous than agaricoid Lactarius species are known now.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ghent University, Department of Biology, Research Group Mycology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;

ABSTRACT
Six new sequestrate Lactarius species are described from tropical forests in South East Asia. Extensive macro- and microscopical descriptions and illustrations of the main anatomical features are provided. Similarities with other sequestrate Russulales and their phylogenetic relationships are discussed. The placement of the species within Lactarius and its subgenera is confirmed by a molecular phylogeny based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 markers. A species key of the new taxa, including five other known angiocarpous species from South East Asia reported to exude milk, is given. The diversity of angiocarpous fungi in tropical areas is considered underestimated and driving evolutionary forces towards gasteromycetization are probably more diverse than generally assumed. The discovery of a large diversity of angiocarpous milkcaps on a rather local tropical scale was unexpected, and especially the fact that in Sri Lanka more angiocarpous than agaricoid Lactarius species are known now.

No MeSH data available.


ML tree (RAxML) based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 sequences. Bootstrap values and Posterior Probabilities (resulting from Bayesian analysis using the HPC) are indicated if they exceed 50 % or 95 %, respectively (BS/PP). Names in orange are the new angiocarpous species described in this paper. The scale bar represents the number of nucleotide changes per site.
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Figure 2: ML tree (RAxML) based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 sequences. Bootstrap values and Posterior Probabilities (resulting from Bayesian analysis using the HPC) are indicated if they exceed 50 % or 95 %, respectively (BS/PP). Names in orange are the new angiocarpous species described in this paper. The scale bar represents the number of nucleotide changes per site.

Mentions: The analysis based on all three sampled loci (ITS, LSU and rpb2) reveals the position of our South East Asian collections within the genus Lactarius. Since there was no conflict among the single loci trees in clades with a bootstrap support of 70 % or higher, a combined analysis was performed. Fig. 2 shows the obtained ML topology with BS values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP). ML and both Bayesian phylogenies differ only in the placement of some terminal, non-gasteroid taxa. All 3 analyses show 3 well-delimited genera in the Russulaceae (Lactarius BS 92 % - PP 100 %, Multifurca BS 100 % - PP 100 % and Russula BS 90 % - PP 100 %) but fail to support the monophyly of the genus Lactifluus. Instead, Lactifluus consistently comes out as paraphyletic and basal to the other Russulaceae genera. Lactifluus volemus, Lactifluus piperatus and Lactifluus gerardii are not included in a monophyletic ‘core’-group of Lactifluus (BS 83 % - PP 100 %) represented by Lactifluus subg. Lactifluus p.p. (excluding section Lactifluus), subg. Edules and subg. Lactariopsis.


Tales of the unexpected: angiocarpous representatives of the Russulaceae in tropical South East Asia.

Verbeken A, Stubbe D, van de Putte K, Eberhardt U, Nuytinck J - Persoonia (2014)

ML tree (RAxML) based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 sequences. Bootstrap values and Posterior Probabilities (resulting from Bayesian analysis using the HPC) are indicated if they exceed 50 % or 95 %, respectively (BS/PP). Names in orange are the new angiocarpous species described in this paper. The scale bar represents the number of nucleotide changes per site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150074&req=5

Figure 2: ML tree (RAxML) based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 sequences. Bootstrap values and Posterior Probabilities (resulting from Bayesian analysis using the HPC) are indicated if they exceed 50 % or 95 %, respectively (BS/PP). Names in orange are the new angiocarpous species described in this paper. The scale bar represents the number of nucleotide changes per site.
Mentions: The analysis based on all three sampled loci (ITS, LSU and rpb2) reveals the position of our South East Asian collections within the genus Lactarius. Since there was no conflict among the single loci trees in clades with a bootstrap support of 70 % or higher, a combined analysis was performed. Fig. 2 shows the obtained ML topology with BS values and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP). ML and both Bayesian phylogenies differ only in the placement of some terminal, non-gasteroid taxa. All 3 analyses show 3 well-delimited genera in the Russulaceae (Lactarius BS 92 % - PP 100 %, Multifurca BS 100 % - PP 100 % and Russula BS 90 % - PP 100 %) but fail to support the monophyly of the genus Lactifluus. Instead, Lactifluus consistently comes out as paraphyletic and basal to the other Russulaceae genera. Lactifluus volemus, Lactifluus piperatus and Lactifluus gerardii are not included in a monophyletic ‘core’-group of Lactifluus (BS 83 % - PP 100 %) represented by Lactifluus subg. Lactifluus p.p. (excluding section Lactifluus), subg. Edules and subg. Lactariopsis.

Bottom Line: The placement of the species within Lactarius and its subgenera is confirmed by a molecular phylogeny based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 markers.The diversity of angiocarpous fungi in tropical areas is considered underestimated and driving evolutionary forces towards gasteromycetization are probably more diverse than generally assumed.The discovery of a large diversity of angiocarpous milkcaps on a rather local tropical scale was unexpected, and especially the fact that in Sri Lanka more angiocarpous than agaricoid Lactarius species are known now.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ghent University, Department of Biology, Research Group Mycology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Ghent, Belgium;

ABSTRACT
Six new sequestrate Lactarius species are described from tropical forests in South East Asia. Extensive macro- and microscopical descriptions and illustrations of the main anatomical features are provided. Similarities with other sequestrate Russulales and their phylogenetic relationships are discussed. The placement of the species within Lactarius and its subgenera is confirmed by a molecular phylogeny based on ITS, LSU and rpb2 markers. A species key of the new taxa, including five other known angiocarpous species from South East Asia reported to exude milk, is given. The diversity of angiocarpous fungi in tropical areas is considered underestimated and driving evolutionary forces towards gasteromycetization are probably more diverse than generally assumed. The discovery of a large diversity of angiocarpous milkcaps on a rather local tropical scale was unexpected, and especially the fact that in Sri Lanka more angiocarpous than agaricoid Lactarius species are known now.

No MeSH data available.