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Phylogenetic circumscription of Arthrographis (Eremomycetaceae, Dothideomycetes).

Giraldo A, Gené J, Sutton DA, Madrid H, Cano J, Crous PW, Guarro J - Persoonia (2014)

Bottom Line: Based on these results, four new species are recognised, namely Arthrographis chlamydospora, A. curvata, A. globosa and A. longispora.Arthrographis longispora also produces membranous colonies, but has poorly differentiated conidiophores and long arthroconidia.Morphological variants are described for A. kalrae and our results also revealed that Eremomyces langeronii and A. kalrae, traditionally considered the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, are not conspecific.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Micologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain;

ABSTRACT
Numerous members of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota produce only poorly differentiated arthroconidial asexual morphs in culture. These arthroconidial fungi are grouped in genera where the asexual-sexual connections and their taxonomic circumscription are poorly known. In the present study we explored the phylogenetic relationships of two of these ascomycetous genera, Arthrographis and Arthropsis. Analysis of D1/D2 sequences of all species of both genera revealed that both are polyphyletic, with species being accommodated in different orders and classes. Because genetic variability was detected among reference strains and fresh isolates resembling the genus Arthrographis, we carried out a detailed phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the ITS region, actin and chitin synthase genes. Based on these results, four new species are recognised, namely Arthrographis chlamydospora, A. curvata, A. globosa and A. longispora. Arthrographis chlamydospora is distinguished by its cerebriform colonies, branched conidiophores, cuboid arthroconidia and terminal or intercalary globose to subglobose chlamydospores. Arthrographis curvata produced both sexual and asexual morphs, and is characterised by navicular ascospores and dimorphic conidia, namely cylindrical arthroconidia and curved, cashewnut-shaped conidia formed laterally on vegetative hyphae. Arthrographis globosa produced membranous colonies, but is mainly characterised by doliiform to globose arthroconidia. Arthrographis longispora also produces membranous colonies, but has poorly differentiated conidiophores and long arthroconidia. Morphological variants are described for A. kalrae and our results also revealed that Eremomyces langeronii and A. kalrae, traditionally considered the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, are not conspecific.

No MeSH data available.


Arthrographis curvata. a, b. Colonies on MEA 2 % and PDA, respectively, after 21 d at 25 °C. — c–g. Asexual morph: c. simple or poorly branched conidiophores; d. arthroconidia and ascospores; e. lateral sessile conidia. f, g. curved conidia produced in BHI at 37 °C. — h–j. Sexual morph: h. ascoma; i. dark brown hyphae on the peridium; j. ascospores (a–c, e, g. FMR 4032; d, f, h–j. UTHSC 11-1163). — Scale bars = 10 μm.
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Figure 5: Arthrographis curvata. a, b. Colonies on MEA 2 % and PDA, respectively, after 21 d at 25 °C. — c–g. Asexual morph: c. simple or poorly branched conidiophores; d. arthroconidia and ascospores; e. lateral sessile conidia. f, g. curved conidia produced in BHI at 37 °C. — h–j. Sexual morph: h. ascoma; i. dark brown hyphae on the peridium; j. ascospores (a–c, e, g. FMR 4032; d, f, h–j. UTHSC 11-1163). — Scale bars = 10 μm.

Mentions: Arthrographis sp. I (FMR 4032 and UTHSC 11-1163) (Fig. 5a–j) showed similar morphological characteristics to those of the A. kalrae clade, but differed in the following features: the colonies on MEA 2 % were orange-yellow (4B8) and showed a very slow growth (6–7 mm diam in 14 d) (Fig. 5a); in addition to the trichosporiella-like synasexual morph (Fig. 5e), both strains produced on PDA at 25 °C and BHI at 37 °C curved and cashewnut-shaped sessile conidia formed laterally on undifferentiated hyphae (Fig. 5f, g); and the strain UTHSC 11-1163 produced superficial spherical ascomata with evanescent asci and navicular ascospores (Fig. 5h–j).


Phylogenetic circumscription of Arthrographis (Eremomycetaceae, Dothideomycetes).

Giraldo A, Gené J, Sutton DA, Madrid H, Cano J, Crous PW, Guarro J - Persoonia (2014)

Arthrographis curvata. a, b. Colonies on MEA 2 % and PDA, respectively, after 21 d at 25 °C. — c–g. Asexual morph: c. simple or poorly branched conidiophores; d. arthroconidia and ascospores; e. lateral sessile conidia. f, g. curved conidia produced in BHI at 37 °C. — h–j. Sexual morph: h. ascoma; i. dark brown hyphae on the peridium; j. ascospores (a–c, e, g. FMR 4032; d, f, h–j. UTHSC 11-1163). — Scale bars = 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4150071&req=5

Figure 5: Arthrographis curvata. a, b. Colonies on MEA 2 % and PDA, respectively, after 21 d at 25 °C. — c–g. Asexual morph: c. simple or poorly branched conidiophores; d. arthroconidia and ascospores; e. lateral sessile conidia. f, g. curved conidia produced in BHI at 37 °C. — h–j. Sexual morph: h. ascoma; i. dark brown hyphae on the peridium; j. ascospores (a–c, e, g. FMR 4032; d, f, h–j. UTHSC 11-1163). — Scale bars = 10 μm.
Mentions: Arthrographis sp. I (FMR 4032 and UTHSC 11-1163) (Fig. 5a–j) showed similar morphological characteristics to those of the A. kalrae clade, but differed in the following features: the colonies on MEA 2 % were orange-yellow (4B8) and showed a very slow growth (6–7 mm diam in 14 d) (Fig. 5a); in addition to the trichosporiella-like synasexual morph (Fig. 5e), both strains produced on PDA at 25 °C and BHI at 37 °C curved and cashewnut-shaped sessile conidia formed laterally on undifferentiated hyphae (Fig. 5f, g); and the strain UTHSC 11-1163 produced superficial spherical ascomata with evanescent asci and navicular ascospores (Fig. 5h–j).

Bottom Line: Based on these results, four new species are recognised, namely Arthrographis chlamydospora, A. curvata, A. globosa and A. longispora.Arthrographis longispora also produces membranous colonies, but has poorly differentiated conidiophores and long arthroconidia.Morphological variants are described for A. kalrae and our results also revealed that Eremomyces langeronii and A. kalrae, traditionally considered the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, are not conspecific.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Unitat de Micologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain;

ABSTRACT
Numerous members of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota produce only poorly differentiated arthroconidial asexual morphs in culture. These arthroconidial fungi are grouped in genera where the asexual-sexual connections and their taxonomic circumscription are poorly known. In the present study we explored the phylogenetic relationships of two of these ascomycetous genera, Arthrographis and Arthropsis. Analysis of D1/D2 sequences of all species of both genera revealed that both are polyphyletic, with species being accommodated in different orders and classes. Because genetic variability was detected among reference strains and fresh isolates resembling the genus Arthrographis, we carried out a detailed phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the ITS region, actin and chitin synthase genes. Based on these results, four new species are recognised, namely Arthrographis chlamydospora, A. curvata, A. globosa and A. longispora. Arthrographis chlamydospora is distinguished by its cerebriform colonies, branched conidiophores, cuboid arthroconidia and terminal or intercalary globose to subglobose chlamydospores. Arthrographis curvata produced both sexual and asexual morphs, and is characterised by navicular ascospores and dimorphic conidia, namely cylindrical arthroconidia and curved, cashewnut-shaped conidia formed laterally on vegetative hyphae. Arthrographis globosa produced membranous colonies, but is mainly characterised by doliiform to globose arthroconidia. Arthrographis longispora also produces membranous colonies, but has poorly differentiated conidiophores and long arthroconidia. Morphological variants are described for A. kalrae and our results also revealed that Eremomyces langeronii and A. kalrae, traditionally considered the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, are not conspecific.

No MeSH data available.