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Moxibustion Activates Macrophage Autophagy and Protects Experimental Mice against Bacterial Infection.

Li X, Guo G, Shen F, Kong L, Liang F, Sun G - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Moxibustion is one of main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and uses heat stimulation on the body surface from the burning of moxa to release pain or treat diseases.Here we show moxibustion promoted profound macrophage autophagy in experimental Kunming mice, with reduced Akt phosphorylation and activated eIF2α phosphorylation.Consequently, moxibustion promoted bacterial clearance by macrophages and protected mice from mortality due to bacterial infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Acupuncture and Moxibustion College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China ; Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of Preventive Treatment by Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China.

ABSTRACT
Moxibustion is one of main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and uses heat stimulation on the body surface from the burning of moxa to release pain or treat diseases. Emerging studies have shown that moxibustion can generate therapeutic effects by activating a series of signaling pathways and neuroendocrine-immune activities. Here we show moxibustion promoted profound macrophage autophagy in experimental Kunming mice, with reduced Akt phosphorylation and activated eIF2α phosphorylation. Consequently, moxibustion promoted bacterial clearance by macrophages and protected mice from mortality due to bacterial infection. These results indicate that moxibustion generates a protective response by activating autophagy against bacterial infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Autophagic Akt and eIF2α pathways are activated by moxibustion. (a) Four mice per group were untreated or treated as indicated and equal whole cell extracts of macrophages from mice were mixed and signaling pathways detected as indicated. (b) Two random macrophage samples from six individual mice per group are shown.
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fig2: Autophagic Akt and eIF2α pathways are activated by moxibustion. (a) Four mice per group were untreated or treated as indicated and equal whole cell extracts of macrophages from mice were mixed and signaling pathways detected as indicated. (b) Two random macrophage samples from six individual mice per group are shown.

Mentions: We attempted to address upstream signaling pathways by which moxibustion activates autophagy. Akt inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by phosphorylating eIF2α-kinase PERK [35] and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway acts as a well-characterized negative regulator of autophagy [36]. Because moxibustion delivers heat stimulation to the operative site, we hypothesized it induced a stress response, and then Akt activity and ER stress were examined after moxibustion. To diminish the individual differences in mice, we investigated ER stress in mixed macrophages (Figure 2(a)) and random macrophages (Figure 2(b)). As shown in Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in top panel, phosphorylation of eIF2α in macrophages was significantly elevated at 30 min and then slightly fell back at 1 h during moxibustion, indicating a rapid ER stress response was activated. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Akt was decreased dramatically at both 30 min and 1 h, suggesting moxibustion suppressed Akt activation (Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in bottom panel). Thus, we concluded that moxibustion induced autophagy in macrophages by suppressing the Akt pathway and activating ER stress.


Moxibustion Activates Macrophage Autophagy and Protects Experimental Mice against Bacterial Infection.

Li X, Guo G, Shen F, Kong L, Liang F, Sun G - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Autophagic Akt and eIF2α pathways are activated by moxibustion. (a) Four mice per group were untreated or treated as indicated and equal whole cell extracts of macrophages from mice were mixed and signaling pathways detected as indicated. (b) Two random macrophage samples from six individual mice per group are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig2: Autophagic Akt and eIF2α pathways are activated by moxibustion. (a) Four mice per group were untreated or treated as indicated and equal whole cell extracts of macrophages from mice were mixed and signaling pathways detected as indicated. (b) Two random macrophage samples from six individual mice per group are shown.
Mentions: We attempted to address upstream signaling pathways by which moxibustion activates autophagy. Akt inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by phosphorylating eIF2α-kinase PERK [35] and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway acts as a well-characterized negative regulator of autophagy [36]. Because moxibustion delivers heat stimulation to the operative site, we hypothesized it induced a stress response, and then Akt activity and ER stress were examined after moxibustion. To diminish the individual differences in mice, we investigated ER stress in mixed macrophages (Figure 2(a)) and random macrophages (Figure 2(b)). As shown in Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in top panel, phosphorylation of eIF2α in macrophages was significantly elevated at 30 min and then slightly fell back at 1 h during moxibustion, indicating a rapid ER stress response was activated. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Akt was decreased dramatically at both 30 min and 1 h, suggesting moxibustion suppressed Akt activation (Figures 2(a) and 2(b) in bottom panel). Thus, we concluded that moxibustion induced autophagy in macrophages by suppressing the Akt pathway and activating ER stress.

Bottom Line: Moxibustion is one of main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and uses heat stimulation on the body surface from the burning of moxa to release pain or treat diseases.Here we show moxibustion promoted profound macrophage autophagy in experimental Kunming mice, with reduced Akt phosphorylation and activated eIF2α phosphorylation.Consequently, moxibustion promoted bacterial clearance by macrophages and protected mice from mortality due to bacterial infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Acupuncture and Moxibustion College, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China ; Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of Preventive Treatment by Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China.

ABSTRACT
Moxibustion is one of main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and uses heat stimulation on the body surface from the burning of moxa to release pain or treat diseases. Emerging studies have shown that moxibustion can generate therapeutic effects by activating a series of signaling pathways and neuroendocrine-immune activities. Here we show moxibustion promoted profound macrophage autophagy in experimental Kunming mice, with reduced Akt phosphorylation and activated eIF2α phosphorylation. Consequently, moxibustion promoted bacterial clearance by macrophages and protected mice from mortality due to bacterial infection. These results indicate that moxibustion generates a protective response by activating autophagy against bacterial infections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus