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Measurement of airway function using invasive and non-invasive methods in mild and severe models for allergic airway inflammation in mice.

Verheijden KA, Henricks PA, Redegeld FA, Garssen J, Folkerts G - Front Pharmacol (2014)

Bottom Line: There was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the Broncho-Alveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) in both the mild and severe inflammation animals.IL-2 and RANTES levels in the BALF were higher in the severe inflammation groups compared to the mild inflammation groups.Measuring RL gave consistent results in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models however, ventilation induced an additional cell influx into the airways.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In this study a direct comparison was made between non-invasive and non-ventilated unrestrained whole body plethysmography (Penh) (conscious animals) and the invasive ventilated lung resistance (RL) method (anesthetized animals) in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models. Mild inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization and aerosols of ovalbumin. Severe inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization using trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin, followed by intranasal challenges with IgE-allergen complexes. A significant increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in the mild inflammation group when RL was measured. Significant changes in both RL and Penh were observed in the severe inflammation groups. There was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the Broncho-Alveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) in both the mild and severe inflammation animals. The enforced ventilation of the animals during the RL measurement further increased the number of cells in the BALF. IL-2 and RANTES levels in the BALF were higher in the severe inflammation groups compared to the mild inflammation groups. Penh gave only reliable measurements during severe airway inflammation. Measuring RL gave consistent results in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models however, ventilation induced an additional cell influx into the airways.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytokine measurement in BALF. Cytokines were measured in mice sensitized with saline or ovalbumin and challenged by aerosol with saline or ovalbumin (mild) and mice sensitized with saline or TNP-OVA and challenged intranasally with saline or TNP-OVA-IgE (severe) after Penh measurement or RL measurement. (A) IL-2 concentration in pg/mL, (B) RANTES concentration in pg/mL. Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using a One-Way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni test, n = 4–5 mice/group.
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Figure 6: Cytokine measurement in BALF. Cytokines were measured in mice sensitized with saline or ovalbumin and challenged by aerosol with saline or ovalbumin (mild) and mice sensitized with saline or TNP-OVA and challenged intranasally with saline or TNP-OVA-IgE (severe) after Penh measurement or RL measurement. (A) IL-2 concentration in pg/mL, (B) RANTES concentration in pg/mL. Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using a One-Way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni test, n = 4–5 mice/group.

Mentions: Inflammatory cytokines were measured in the BALF of the experimental groups. There was no relation between the cytokine profile or amount of cytokine protein and ventilation vs. no ventilation. Therefore, in contrast to the number of inflammatory cells, the ventilation procedure did not influence the type and amount of cytokines produced. However, the levels of IL-2 and RANTES were increased in BALF in the severe airway inflammation model compared to the mild model (Figures 6A,B, respectively). In the both models GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and MIP-2 were below detection limit. All other cytokines and chemokines are depicted in Tables 5, 6.


Measurement of airway function using invasive and non-invasive methods in mild and severe models for allergic airway inflammation in mice.

Verheijden KA, Henricks PA, Redegeld FA, Garssen J, Folkerts G - Front Pharmacol (2014)

Cytokine measurement in BALF. Cytokines were measured in mice sensitized with saline or ovalbumin and challenged by aerosol with saline or ovalbumin (mild) and mice sensitized with saline or TNP-OVA and challenged intranasally with saline or TNP-OVA-IgE (severe) after Penh measurement or RL measurement. (A) IL-2 concentration in pg/mL, (B) RANTES concentration in pg/mL. Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using a One-Way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni test, n = 4–5 mice/group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129625&req=5

Figure 6: Cytokine measurement in BALF. Cytokines were measured in mice sensitized with saline or ovalbumin and challenged by aerosol with saline or ovalbumin (mild) and mice sensitized with saline or TNP-OVA and challenged intranasally with saline or TNP-OVA-IgE (severe) after Penh measurement or RL measurement. (A) IL-2 concentration in pg/mL, (B) RANTES concentration in pg/mL. Values are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 using a One-Way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni test, n = 4–5 mice/group.
Mentions: Inflammatory cytokines were measured in the BALF of the experimental groups. There was no relation between the cytokine profile or amount of cytokine protein and ventilation vs. no ventilation. Therefore, in contrast to the number of inflammatory cells, the ventilation procedure did not influence the type and amount of cytokines produced. However, the levels of IL-2 and RANTES were increased in BALF in the severe airway inflammation model compared to the mild model (Figures 6A,B, respectively). In the both models GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and MIP-2 were below detection limit. All other cytokines and chemokines are depicted in Tables 5, 6.

Bottom Line: There was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the Broncho-Alveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) in both the mild and severe inflammation animals.IL-2 and RANTES levels in the BALF were higher in the severe inflammation groups compared to the mild inflammation groups.Measuring RL gave consistent results in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models however, ventilation induced an additional cell influx into the airways.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
In this study a direct comparison was made between non-invasive and non-ventilated unrestrained whole body plethysmography (Penh) (conscious animals) and the invasive ventilated lung resistance (RL) method (anesthetized animals) in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models. Mild inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization and aerosols of ovalbumin. Severe inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal sensitization using trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin, followed by intranasal challenges with IgE-allergen complexes. A significant increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in the mild inflammation group when RL was measured. Significant changes in both RL and Penh were observed in the severe inflammation groups. There was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells in the Broncho-Alveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) in both the mild and severe inflammation animals. The enforced ventilation of the animals during the RL measurement further increased the number of cells in the BALF. IL-2 and RANTES levels in the BALF were higher in the severe inflammation groups compared to the mild inflammation groups. Penh gave only reliable measurements during severe airway inflammation. Measuring RL gave consistent results in both mild and severe allergic airway inflammation models however, ventilation induced an additional cell influx into the airways.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus