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New insight into an old concept: role of immature erythroid cells in immune pathogenesis of neonatal infection.

Elahi S - Front Immunol (2014)

Bottom Line: Herein, I provide evidence that the reduced ability to mount a protective immune response to pathogens is not due to an inherent immaturity of neonatal immune cells but instead the functions of these immune cells are actively suppressed by CD71(+) erythroid cells.In addition to these distinct features, CD71(+) erythroid cells impact digestive health by preventing excessive inflammation following the sudden transition from a sterile in utero setting to excessive colonization with commensals in the external environment.Ongoing research in identifying the beneficial and/or detrimental effects of immature erythrocytes on immune responses may serve to enhance protective newborn immune responses to infection and enable better vaccination strategies for the young to be designed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Newborns are exceedingly susceptible to infection. However, very little is known about what governs the immunological differences seen in early life that result in extreme vulnerability to infection, nor how this changes during infancy. Herein, I provide evidence that the reduced ability to mount a protective immune response to pathogens is not due to an inherent immaturity of neonatal immune cells but instead the functions of these immune cells are actively suppressed by CD71(+) erythroid cells. Furthermore, the role of CD71(+) erythroid cells in host defense against infection is examined. CD71(+) erythroid cells are enriched in newborns and have distinctive immunosuppressive properties that leave them vulnerable to infection. Moreover, immature erythroid cells possess exclusive immunomodulatory properties and may play a role in immune ontogeny. In addition to these distinct features, CD71(+) erythroid cells impact digestive health by preventing excessive inflammation following the sudden transition from a sterile in utero setting to excessive colonization with commensals in the external environment. Ongoing research in identifying the beneficial and/or detrimental effects of immature erythrocytes on immune responses may serve to enhance protective newborn immune responses to infection and enable better vaccination strategies for the young to be designed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model depicting how CD71+ erythroid cells mediate immunomodulatory functions. CD71+ erythroid cells by secreting soluble immunosuppressive factors, depletion of arginine, and direct cell–cell contact manners inhibit CD4, CD8, B cell, macrophage (MQ), and dendritic cell (DC) responses. CD71+ erythroid cells could also skew a Th2 type immune response or expand regulatory T cells (Tregs), by the production of cytokines and influence on the cytokine milieu.
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Figure 1: Model depicting how CD71+ erythroid cells mediate immunomodulatory functions. CD71+ erythroid cells by secreting soluble immunosuppressive factors, depletion of arginine, and direct cell–cell contact manners inhibit CD4, CD8, B cell, macrophage (MQ), and dendritic cell (DC) responses. CD71+ erythroid cells could also skew a Th2 type immune response or expand regulatory T cells (Tregs), by the production of cytokines and influence on the cytokine milieu.

Mentions: Taken together, on one hand, nucleated erythrocytes through cytokines, arginase-2, other possible unidentified soluble factors, and cell–cell contact-dependent manners suppress innate and adaptive immune responses (immunosuppressive effects). On the other hand, they might create a balanced mediator microenvironment providing the necessary signals required for natural development of different hematopoietic and immune cell lineages (immunomodulatory effects) (Figure 1).


New insight into an old concept: role of immature erythroid cells in immune pathogenesis of neonatal infection.

Elahi S - Front Immunol (2014)

Model depicting how CD71+ erythroid cells mediate immunomodulatory functions. CD71+ erythroid cells by secreting soluble immunosuppressive factors, depletion of arginine, and direct cell–cell contact manners inhibit CD4, CD8, B cell, macrophage (MQ), and dendritic cell (DC) responses. CD71+ erythroid cells could also skew a Th2 type immune response or expand regulatory T cells (Tregs), by the production of cytokines and influence on the cytokine milieu.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129624&req=5

Figure 1: Model depicting how CD71+ erythroid cells mediate immunomodulatory functions. CD71+ erythroid cells by secreting soluble immunosuppressive factors, depletion of arginine, and direct cell–cell contact manners inhibit CD4, CD8, B cell, macrophage (MQ), and dendritic cell (DC) responses. CD71+ erythroid cells could also skew a Th2 type immune response or expand regulatory T cells (Tregs), by the production of cytokines and influence on the cytokine milieu.
Mentions: Taken together, on one hand, nucleated erythrocytes through cytokines, arginase-2, other possible unidentified soluble factors, and cell–cell contact-dependent manners suppress innate and adaptive immune responses (immunosuppressive effects). On the other hand, they might create a balanced mediator microenvironment providing the necessary signals required for natural development of different hematopoietic and immune cell lineages (immunomodulatory effects) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Herein, I provide evidence that the reduced ability to mount a protective immune response to pathogens is not due to an inherent immaturity of neonatal immune cells but instead the functions of these immune cells are actively suppressed by CD71(+) erythroid cells.In addition to these distinct features, CD71(+) erythroid cells impact digestive health by preventing excessive inflammation following the sudden transition from a sterile in utero setting to excessive colonization with commensals in the external environment.Ongoing research in identifying the beneficial and/or detrimental effects of immature erythrocytes on immune responses may serve to enhance protective newborn immune responses to infection and enable better vaccination strategies for the young to be designed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Newborns are exceedingly susceptible to infection. However, very little is known about what governs the immunological differences seen in early life that result in extreme vulnerability to infection, nor how this changes during infancy. Herein, I provide evidence that the reduced ability to mount a protective immune response to pathogens is not due to an inherent immaturity of neonatal immune cells but instead the functions of these immune cells are actively suppressed by CD71(+) erythroid cells. Furthermore, the role of CD71(+) erythroid cells in host defense against infection is examined. CD71(+) erythroid cells are enriched in newborns and have distinctive immunosuppressive properties that leave them vulnerable to infection. Moreover, immature erythroid cells possess exclusive immunomodulatory properties and may play a role in immune ontogeny. In addition to these distinct features, CD71(+) erythroid cells impact digestive health by preventing excessive inflammation following the sudden transition from a sterile in utero setting to excessive colonization with commensals in the external environment. Ongoing research in identifying the beneficial and/or detrimental effects of immature erythrocytes on immune responses may serve to enhance protective newborn immune responses to infection and enable better vaccination strategies for the young to be designed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus