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Canine testicular tumors: two types of seminomas can be differentiated by immunohistochemistry.

Hohšteter M, Artuković B, Severin K, Kurilj AG, Beck A, Šoštarić-Zuckermann IC, Grabarević Ž - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: IGCNU was found in 3% of testicles at necropsy and in 3% of biopsy samples.The low incidence of metastasis confirmed the predominance of benign tumors.Low CD30 expression confirmed the low incidence of testicular embryonal carcinoma.

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ABSTRACT

Background: Testicular tumors are the most common genital neoplasms in male dogs, with Leydig cell tumors (LCT), seminomas (SEM), and Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) the most common forms. Human SEM are classified as classical (CSEM) or spermatocytic (SSEM). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of undifferentiated origin (IGCNU) is another form of human testicular tumor. The aim of this study was to verify that CSEM/SSEM classification is valid in dogs and confirm the existence of canine IGCNU.

Results: Testicular tumors were found in 46% of dogs at necropsy and accounted for 7% of tumors biopsied. The median age of dogs with tumors at necropsy was 10.16 years; median age at positive biopsy was 10.24 years. The most common tumors, in decreasing order, were LCT, mixed tumors, SEM and SCT at necropsy, and SEM, SCT, mixed tumors, LCT, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and teratoma in the biopsy group. IGCNU was found in 3% of testicles at necropsy and in 3% of biopsy samples. Two dogs had testicular tumor metastasis. Expression of c-KIT was most common in SEM and seminomatous components of mixed tumors. PLAP was mostly expressed in IGCNU, SEM, teratoma, and some mixed tumors. Cytokeratin was mainly expressed in SCT. CD30 expression was low in both groups.

Conclusions: The high tumor incidence at necropsy can be attributed to older age. Tumor incidence in biopsy samples, dog age, and histological classification were consistent with previous studies. The higher incidence of SEM and SCT in the biopsy group probably resulted from the obvious clinical expression of these tumor types. The low incidence of metastasis confirmed the predominance of benign tumors. Low CD30 expression confirmed the low incidence of testicular embryonal carcinoma. Cytokeratin helps differentiate stromal tumors, especially SCT, from germ cell tumors. Histology and c-KIT and PLAP expression indicate that IGCNU exists in dogs. Expression of c-KIT and PLAP confirmed that CSEM and SSEM classification is valid in dogs.

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Sertoli cell tumor, testicle, dog, cytokeratin, ×40.
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Figure 6: Sertoli cell tumor, testicle, dog, cytokeratin, ×40.

Mentions: Cytokeratin was expressed in 35% of testicular tumors from necropsy samples and in 33% of biopsied testicular tumors (Table 2). Cytokeratin expression was predominantly cytoplasmic with moderate to low intensity. In both groups, positive neoplastic cells were predominantly observed in simple and mixed SCT (Figure 6). The SCT that had metastasized to the peritoneal cavity and left kidney was cytokeratin positive. In mixed SCT from both groups, cytokeratin positivity was found predominantly in the SCT components. Cytokeratin positivity was also noted in a few simple and mixed LCT. In necropsy samples, the expression of cytokeratin was as follows: 2 (100%) of 2 mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 5 (71%) of 7 SCT, 2 (66%) of 3 mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, 3 (60%) of 5 mixed LCT/SCT, 1 (50%) of 2 mixed LCT/diffuse SEM, 2 (28%) of 7 intratubular SEM, 1 (25%) of 4 diffuse SEM, 1 (16%) of 6 IGCNU, and 3 (15%) of 19 LCT. Cytokeratin positivity was expressed in biopsy samples as follows: 1 (100%) of 1 teratoma, 1 (100%) of 1 mixed LCT/SCT (Figure 7), 1 (100%) of 1 mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, 10 (62%) of 16 SCT, 2 (50%) of 4 mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 1 (33%) of 3 intratubular SEM, 1 (20%) of 5 LCT, and 2 (10%) of 20 diffuse SEM. Percentages of cytokeratin-positive cells were in the range of 5–12% in germ cell neoplasia from both groups. The percentages of positive cells from stromal cord tumors in the biopsy group were 65% in mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 60% in LCT, 51% biopsied SCT, and 50% in teratomas. In the necropsy group, the percentages of cytokeratin-positive cells were as follows: 40% in mixed LCT/diffuse SEM, 32% in SCT, 30% in mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 17% in mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, and 16% in LCT. In the necropsy group, the differences in expression of cytokeratin between SCT and intratubular SEM, SCT and LCT, and LCT and mixed LCT/intratubular SEM were significant (p < 0.05). In the biopsy group, the difference in expression of cytokeratin between SCT and diffuse SEM was statistically significant (p < 0.05).


Canine testicular tumors: two types of seminomas can be differentiated by immunohistochemistry.

Hohšteter M, Artuković B, Severin K, Kurilj AG, Beck A, Šoštarić-Zuckermann IC, Grabarević Ž - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Sertoli cell tumor, testicle, dog, cytokeratin, ×40.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129470&req=5

Figure 6: Sertoli cell tumor, testicle, dog, cytokeratin, ×40.
Mentions: Cytokeratin was expressed in 35% of testicular tumors from necropsy samples and in 33% of biopsied testicular tumors (Table 2). Cytokeratin expression was predominantly cytoplasmic with moderate to low intensity. In both groups, positive neoplastic cells were predominantly observed in simple and mixed SCT (Figure 6). The SCT that had metastasized to the peritoneal cavity and left kidney was cytokeratin positive. In mixed SCT from both groups, cytokeratin positivity was found predominantly in the SCT components. Cytokeratin positivity was also noted in a few simple and mixed LCT. In necropsy samples, the expression of cytokeratin was as follows: 2 (100%) of 2 mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 5 (71%) of 7 SCT, 2 (66%) of 3 mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, 3 (60%) of 5 mixed LCT/SCT, 1 (50%) of 2 mixed LCT/diffuse SEM, 2 (28%) of 7 intratubular SEM, 1 (25%) of 4 diffuse SEM, 1 (16%) of 6 IGCNU, and 3 (15%) of 19 LCT. Cytokeratin positivity was expressed in biopsy samples as follows: 1 (100%) of 1 teratoma, 1 (100%) of 1 mixed LCT/SCT (Figure 7), 1 (100%) of 1 mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, 10 (62%) of 16 SCT, 2 (50%) of 4 mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 1 (33%) of 3 intratubular SEM, 1 (20%) of 5 LCT, and 2 (10%) of 20 diffuse SEM. Percentages of cytokeratin-positive cells were in the range of 5–12% in germ cell neoplasia from both groups. The percentages of positive cells from stromal cord tumors in the biopsy group were 65% in mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 60% in LCT, 51% biopsied SCT, and 50% in teratomas. In the necropsy group, the percentages of cytokeratin-positive cells were as follows: 40% in mixed LCT/diffuse SEM, 32% in SCT, 30% in mixed SCT/diffuse SEM, 17% in mixed LCT/intratubular SEM, and 16% in LCT. In the necropsy group, the differences in expression of cytokeratin between SCT and intratubular SEM, SCT and LCT, and LCT and mixed LCT/intratubular SEM were significant (p < 0.05). In the biopsy group, the difference in expression of cytokeratin between SCT and diffuse SEM was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

Bottom Line: IGCNU was found in 3% of testicles at necropsy and in 3% of biopsy samples.The low incidence of metastasis confirmed the predominance of benign tumors.Low CD30 expression confirmed the low incidence of testicular embryonal carcinoma.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Testicular tumors are the most common genital neoplasms in male dogs, with Leydig cell tumors (LCT), seminomas (SEM), and Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) the most common forms. Human SEM are classified as classical (CSEM) or spermatocytic (SSEM). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of undifferentiated origin (IGCNU) is another form of human testicular tumor. The aim of this study was to verify that CSEM/SSEM classification is valid in dogs and confirm the existence of canine IGCNU.

Results: Testicular tumors were found in 46% of dogs at necropsy and accounted for 7% of tumors biopsied. The median age of dogs with tumors at necropsy was 10.16 years; median age at positive biopsy was 10.24 years. The most common tumors, in decreasing order, were LCT, mixed tumors, SEM and SCT at necropsy, and SEM, SCT, mixed tumors, LCT, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and teratoma in the biopsy group. IGCNU was found in 3% of testicles at necropsy and in 3% of biopsy samples. Two dogs had testicular tumor metastasis. Expression of c-KIT was most common in SEM and seminomatous components of mixed tumors. PLAP was mostly expressed in IGCNU, SEM, teratoma, and some mixed tumors. Cytokeratin was mainly expressed in SCT. CD30 expression was low in both groups.

Conclusions: The high tumor incidence at necropsy can be attributed to older age. Tumor incidence in biopsy samples, dog age, and histological classification were consistent with previous studies. The higher incidence of SEM and SCT in the biopsy group probably resulted from the obvious clinical expression of these tumor types. The low incidence of metastasis confirmed the predominance of benign tumors. Low CD30 expression confirmed the low incidence of testicular embryonal carcinoma. Cytokeratin helps differentiate stromal tumors, especially SCT, from germ cell tumors. Histology and c-KIT and PLAP expression indicate that IGCNU exists in dogs. Expression of c-KIT and PLAP confirmed that CSEM and SSEM classification is valid in dogs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus