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Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in swimming speed for the champions in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
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Figure 8: Changes in swimming speed for the champions in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.

Mentions: Similar to the FINA World Championships, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly for female and male finalists in the Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012 (Table 4). Further, Figures 6 and 7 represent the swimming speed over the years for 50 m freestyle, 100 m freestyle, 200 m freestyle, 400 m freestyle, 800 m freestyle, 1500 m freestyle and 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 400 m individual medley, respectively. The corresponding numbers to these disciplines and distances are listed in Table 5. A comparison solely between Olympic champions revealed a slightly different result. Women’s swimming speed remained stable in 100 m backstroke with 1.67 ± 0.03 m/s, 200 m backstroke with 1.58 ± 0.02 m/s, 100 m butterfly with 1.74 ± 0.04 m/s, 200 m individual medley with 1.53 ± 0.03 m/s, 50 m freestyle with 2.05 ± 0.03 m/s and 200 m freestyle with 1.71 ± 0.03 m/s, respectively (Table 6). For men, swimming speed remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke with 1.55 ± 0.02 m/s, 50 m freestyle with 2.3 ± 0.04 m/s, 400 m freestyle with 1.79 ± 0.02 m/s, 800 m freestyle with 1.7 ± 0.01 m/s and 1,500 m freestyle with 1.7 ± 0.02 m/s (Table 6). In the remaining disciplines, female and male Olympic champions’ swimming speed increased linearly over time, when corrected for multiple participation and age of athletes (Table 6). Figures 8 and 9 show these swimming speed trends in the time period between 1992 and 2012. In detail, the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle are depicted in Figure 8 whereas Figure 9 shows the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley.


Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Changes in swimming speed for the champions in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129435&req=5

Figure 8: Changes in swimming speed for the champions in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
Mentions: Similar to the FINA World Championships, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly for female and male finalists in the Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012 (Table 4). Further, Figures 6 and 7 represent the swimming speed over the years for 50 m freestyle, 100 m freestyle, 200 m freestyle, 400 m freestyle, 800 m freestyle, 1500 m freestyle and 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 400 m individual medley, respectively. The corresponding numbers to these disciplines and distances are listed in Table 5. A comparison solely between Olympic champions revealed a slightly different result. Women’s swimming speed remained stable in 100 m backstroke with 1.67 ± 0.03 m/s, 200 m backstroke with 1.58 ± 0.02 m/s, 100 m butterfly with 1.74 ± 0.04 m/s, 200 m individual medley with 1.53 ± 0.03 m/s, 50 m freestyle with 2.05 ± 0.03 m/s and 200 m freestyle with 1.71 ± 0.03 m/s, respectively (Table 6). For men, swimming speed remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke with 1.55 ± 0.02 m/s, 50 m freestyle with 2.3 ± 0.04 m/s, 400 m freestyle with 1.79 ± 0.02 m/s, 800 m freestyle with 1.7 ± 0.01 m/s and 1,500 m freestyle with 1.7 ± 0.02 m/s (Table 6). In the remaining disciplines, female and male Olympic champions’ swimming speed increased linearly over time, when corrected for multiple participation and age of athletes (Table 6). Figures 8 and 9 show these swimming speed trends in the time period between 1992 and 2012. In detail, the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle are depicted in Figure 8 whereas Figure 9 shows the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley.

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus