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Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in swimming speed for the finalists in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at FINA World Championships between the years 1994 and 2013.
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Figure 2: Changes in swimming speed for the finalists in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at FINA World Championships between the years 1994 and 2013.

Mentions: Figures 2 and 3 show the changes in swimming speed for the finalists in the FINA World Championships. In detail, the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle are presented in Figure 2 whereas the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley are reflected in Figure 3. Women’s and men’s swimming speeds increased both linearly for all disciplines and race distances over time (Table 1). In Table 2, the swimming speeds in 1994 and 2013 for both, female and male, finalists at FINA World Championships are presented. Overall, the swimming speeds in each discipline increased between 1994 and 2013 in both women and men. In Figures 4 and 5, changes in swimming speed for the world champions between 1994 and 2013 are depicted. Figure 4 focuses on the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle whereas Figure 5 shows the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley. In contrast to the finalists, no significant change in swimming speed for both, female and male world champions could be detected in the investigated disciplines (Table 3). For men, swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m freestyle, 800 m freestyle and 1,500 m freestyle at 1.75 ± 0.02 m/s, 1.8 ± 0.02 m/s, 1.72 ± 0.02 m/s and 1.7 ± 0.02 m/s, respectively. For female world champions, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m freestyle and 400 m freestyle at 2.05 ± 0.03 m/s and at 1.63 ± 0.02 m/s, respectively. However, in 200 m backstroke, female world champions’ swimming speed increased non-linearly, whereas the speed of their male counterparts increased linearly. This non-linear increase was best described with a polynomial 4th degree. In the remaining disciplines swimming speeds of female and male world champions increased linearly over time (Table 3).


Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Changes in swimming speed for the finalists in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at FINA World Championships between the years 1994 and 2013.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129435&req=5

Figure 2: Changes in swimming speed for the finalists in 50 m (Panel A), 100 m (Panel B), 200 m (Panel C), 400 m (Panel D), 800 m (Panel E) and 1,500 m (Panel F) freestyle at FINA World Championships between the years 1994 and 2013.
Mentions: Figures 2 and 3 show the changes in swimming speed for the finalists in the FINA World Championships. In detail, the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle are presented in Figure 2 whereas the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley are reflected in Figure 3. Women’s and men’s swimming speeds increased both linearly for all disciplines and race distances over time (Table 1). In Table 2, the swimming speeds in 1994 and 2013 for both, female and male, finalists at FINA World Championships are presented. Overall, the swimming speeds in each discipline increased between 1994 and 2013 in both women and men. In Figures 4 and 5, changes in swimming speed for the world champions between 1994 and 2013 are depicted. Figure 4 focuses on the results for 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m freestyle whereas Figure 5 shows the results for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke, 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m and 200 m butterfly as well as 200 m and 400 m individual medley. In contrast to the finalists, no significant change in swimming speed for both, female and male world champions could be detected in the investigated disciplines (Table 3). For men, swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m freestyle, 800 m freestyle and 1,500 m freestyle at 1.75 ± 0.02 m/s, 1.8 ± 0.02 m/s, 1.72 ± 0.02 m/s and 1.7 ± 0.02 m/s, respectively. For female world champions, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m freestyle and 400 m freestyle at 2.05 ± 0.03 m/s and at 1.63 ± 0.02 m/s, respectively. However, in 200 m backstroke, female world champions’ swimming speed increased non-linearly, whereas the speed of their male counterparts increased linearly. This non-linear increase was best described with a polynomial 4th degree. In the remaining disciplines swimming speeds of female and male world champions increased linearly over time (Table 3).

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus