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Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in sex difference for the champions in 100 m breaststroke (Panel A), 200 m breaststroke (Panel B), 100 m backstroke (Panel C), 200 m backstroke (Panel D), 100 m butterfly (Panel E), 200 m butterfly (Panel F), 200 m individual medley (Panel G) and 400 m individual medley (Panel H) at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
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Figure 17: Changes in sex difference for the champions in 100 m breaststroke (Panel A), 200 m breaststroke (Panel B), 100 m backstroke (Panel C), 200 m backstroke (Panel D), 100 m butterfly (Panel E), 200 m butterfly (Panel F), 200 m individual medley (Panel G) and 400 m individual medley (Panel H) at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.

Mentions: The changes in sex difference for the finalists in the Olympic Games are given in Figure 14 (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m and 800 m freestyle) and Figure 15 (i.e. 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley and 400 m individual medley). In 100 m backstroke, 400 m freestyle and 800 m freestyle, the sex difference decreased linearly during the analyzed time period, from 10.82 ± 0.47% to 10.10 ± 0.5%, from 9.43 ± 0.41% to 7.63 ± 0.61% and from 6.53 ± 0.51% to 5.84 ± 0.31%, respectively (Table 10). However, a linear increase from 9.13 ± 0.8% to 9.44 ± 0.35% can be reported for 200 m butterfly (Table 11). Changes in sex difference for the world champions between 1992 and 2012 in 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m and 800 m freestyle are depicted in Figure 16 whereas Figure 17 shows the changes in sex difference for 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley and 400 m individual medley. In contrast to the finalists, no significant change in sex difference for both, female and male Olympic Champions, could be detected in any of the investigated disciplines (Table 12).


Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013.

Wild S, Rüst CA, Rosemann T, Knechtle B - BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil (2014)

Changes in sex difference for the champions in 100 m breaststroke (Panel A), 200 m breaststroke (Panel B), 100 m backstroke (Panel C), 200 m backstroke (Panel D), 100 m butterfly (Panel E), 200 m butterfly (Panel F), 200 m individual medley (Panel G) and 400 m individual medley (Panel H) at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129435&req=5

Figure 17: Changes in sex difference for the champions in 100 m breaststroke (Panel A), 200 m breaststroke (Panel B), 100 m backstroke (Panel C), 200 m backstroke (Panel D), 100 m butterfly (Panel E), 200 m butterfly (Panel F), 200 m individual medley (Panel G) and 400 m individual medley (Panel H) at the Olympic Games between the years 1992 and 2012.
Mentions: The changes in sex difference for the finalists in the Olympic Games are given in Figure 14 (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m and 800 m freestyle) and Figure 15 (i.e. 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley and 400 m individual medley). In 100 m backstroke, 400 m freestyle and 800 m freestyle, the sex difference decreased linearly during the analyzed time period, from 10.82 ± 0.47% to 10.10 ± 0.5%, from 9.43 ± 0.41% to 7.63 ± 0.61% and from 6.53 ± 0.51% to 5.84 ± 0.31%, respectively (Table 10). However, a linear increase from 9.13 ± 0.8% to 9.44 ± 0.35% can be reported for 200 m butterfly (Table 11). Changes in sex difference for the world champions between 1992 and 2012 in 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m and 800 m freestyle are depicted in Figure 16 whereas Figure 17 shows the changes in sex difference for 100 m breaststroke, 200 m breaststroke, 100 m backstroke, 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley and 400 m individual medley. In contrast to the finalists, no significant change in sex difference for both, female and male Olympic Champions, could be detected in any of the investigated disciplines (Table 12).

Bottom Line: Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke.In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle.Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013.

Methods: Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists.

Results: Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions' swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions' swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances.

Conclusion: Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly, and 100 m breaststroke). Sex difference in swimming was unchanged in Olympic and world champions. Finalists and champions at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships reduced the sex difference with increasing race distance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus