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Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan.

Yamashiro H, Isomura N, Sakai K - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases.Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter.In addition to the cyanobacterium-shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, 3422 Sesoko, Motobu, Okinawa 905-0227, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20 m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium-shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom.

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Map showing the study site.Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata was observed at Sakubaru reef (arrow) in Akajima Island (A). Maps were downloaded from The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan.
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f1: Map showing the study site.Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata was observed at Sakubaru reef (arrow) in Akajima Island (A). Maps were downloaded from The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan.

Mentions: This study was conducted at Sakubaru-reef, Aka-jima, Okinawa, Japan (26°10′37″ N, 127°16′ 27″E), which is approximately 1.5 km from the residential area of Aka-jima (Fig. 1). This is a deep (>20 m), clear-water environment where gorgonian corals (sea fans) are dominant and scleractinian corals also occur along the reef slope. The gorgonian coral Annellareticulata (Fig. 2A) forms a dense population approximately 50 m wide by 100 m long, at 10–25 m depth (A. Kishi, pers. com.). Attachment of filamentous cyanobacteria to gorgonian coral was first observed about 10 years ago at 20 m depth and has gradually increased in both number and in extent since then (H. Matayoshi, personal observation). Cyanobacterial overgrowth was observed exclusively on the colony surface of the gorgonian coral and was not found on other substratum or sessile organisms including scleractinian corals (Fig. 2B,D).


Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan.

Yamashiro H, Isomura N, Sakai K - Sci Rep (2014)

Map showing the study site.Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata was observed at Sakubaru reef (arrow) in Akajima Island (A). Maps were downloaded from The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129413&req=5

f1: Map showing the study site.Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata was observed at Sakubaru reef (arrow) in Akajima Island (A). Maps were downloaded from The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan.
Mentions: This study was conducted at Sakubaru-reef, Aka-jima, Okinawa, Japan (26°10′37″ N, 127°16′ 27″E), which is approximately 1.5 km from the residential area of Aka-jima (Fig. 1). This is a deep (>20 m), clear-water environment where gorgonian corals (sea fans) are dominant and scleractinian corals also occur along the reef slope. The gorgonian coral Annellareticulata (Fig. 2A) forms a dense population approximately 50 m wide by 100 m long, at 10–25 m depth (A. Kishi, pers. com.). Attachment of filamentous cyanobacteria to gorgonian coral was first observed about 10 years ago at 20 m depth and has gradually increased in both number and in extent since then (H. Matayoshi, personal observation). Cyanobacterial overgrowth was observed exclusively on the colony surface of the gorgonian coral and was not found on other substratum or sessile organisms including scleractinian corals (Fig. 2B,D).

Bottom Line: Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases.Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter.In addition to the cyanobacterium-shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, 3422 Sesoko, Motobu, Okinawa 905-0227, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20 m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium-shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus