Limits...
Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of the guarded female’s rank on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fGC levels for iparous females (triangles) and parous females (circles), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The lines depict the linear relationship predicted by model 3 for iparous (dashed line) and parous females (solid line) and the dots depict the raw data points.
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Fig4: Effect of the guarded female’s rank on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fGC levels for iparous females (triangles) and parous females (circles), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The lines depict the linear relationship predicted by model 3 for iparous (dashed line) and parous females (solid line) and the dots depict the raw data points.

Mentions: In model 3, the comparison between the and the full model revealed a trend toward significance (P = 0.069, Table III). The AI between the male and the guarded female did not influence male’s fGC levels (N = 113 d, P = 0.605). The interaction between “female rank” and “parity status” was close to significance (P = 0.072) and males tended to have higher stress hormone levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous females (Fig. 4). Finally fruit availability had a significant and negative effect on a male’s fGC levels (estimate ± SE = –0.25 ± 0.05, PMCMC < 0.001, Table III). The more fruits were available the lower were the males’ fGC levels.Fig. 4


Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Effect of the guarded female’s rank on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fGC levels for iparous females (triangles) and parous females (circles), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The lines depict the linear relationship predicted by model 3 for iparous (dashed line) and parous females (solid line) and the dots depict the raw data points.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129240&req=5

Fig4: Effect of the guarded female’s rank on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) fGC levels for iparous females (triangles) and parous females (circles), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The lines depict the linear relationship predicted by model 3 for iparous (dashed line) and parous females (solid line) and the dots depict the raw data points.
Mentions: In model 3, the comparison between the and the full model revealed a trend toward significance (P = 0.069, Table III). The AI between the male and the guarded female did not influence male’s fGC levels (N = 113 d, P = 0.605). The interaction between “female rank” and “parity status” was close to significance (P = 0.072) and males tended to have higher stress hormone levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous females (Fig. 4). Finally fruit availability had a significant and negative effect on a male’s fGC levels (estimate ± SE = –0.25 ± 0.05, PMCMC < 0.001, Table III). The more fruits were available the lower were the males’ fGC levels.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus