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Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of male–female Association Index (AI) and fruit availability on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) feeding time, at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The plane depicts values predicted by model 1.
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Fig2: Effect of male–female Association Index (AI) and fruit availability on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) feeding time, at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The plane depicts values predicted by model 1.

Mentions: The full model was significantly different to the model in model 1 (feeding time, P < 0.001, Table III). Males spent more time feeding when mate-guarding parous females than when mate-guarding iparous ones (N = 192 d, at reference level “parous” estimate ± SE = 5.73 ± 1.86, PMCMC= 0.014, Table III), but female rank did not affect time spent feeding (PMCMC= 0.794). A male’s AI with the guarded female influenced his feeding time through an interaction with fruit availability (PMCMC= 0.001, Table III). When fruit availability was low, males fed less time while mate-guarding females with which they had a high AI. However, above a certain level of fruit availability, the pattern was reversed and males spent more time feeding while mate-guarding females with which they had a high AI (Fig. 2).Table III


Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Effect of male–female Association Index (AI) and fruit availability on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) feeding time, at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The plane depicts values predicted by model 1.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129240&req=5

Fig2: Effect of male–female Association Index (AI) and fruit availability on male long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) feeding time, at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). The plane depicts values predicted by model 1.
Mentions: The full model was significantly different to the model in model 1 (feeding time, P < 0.001, Table III). Males spent more time feeding when mate-guarding parous females than when mate-guarding iparous ones (N = 192 d, at reference level “parous” estimate ± SE = 5.73 ± 1.86, PMCMC= 0.014, Table III), but female rank did not affect time spent feeding (PMCMC= 0.794). A male’s AI with the guarded female influenced his feeding time through an interaction with fruit availability (PMCMC= 0.001, Table III). When fruit availability was low, males fed less time while mate-guarding females with which they had a high AI. However, above a certain level of fruit availability, the pattern was reversed and males spent more time feeding while mate-guarding females with which they had a high AI (Fig. 2).Table III

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus