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Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of days each female long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was observed being mate-guarded by a given male depending on male–female association index (a) and female rank (b), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). Parous females are depicted with circles and iparous ones with triangles. Each point represents a given male-female guarding dyad.
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Fig1: Number of days each female long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was observed being mate-guarded by a given male depending on male–female association index (a) and female rank (b), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). Parous females are depicted with circles and iparous ones with triangles. Each point represents a given male-female guarding dyad.

Mentions: The number of mate-guarding days was generally not related to female parity, rank, or male–female AI (Fig. 1). Whereas males spent more time on mate-guarding parous than iparous females in two groups (C and KA), the opposite occurred in the third group (KB) (Table I). Of all females that were observed to be mate-guarded, iparous females were guarded by a given male between 1 and 20 d and parous females between 1 and 28 d. Further, several females with an AI with the guarding male that was above the mean (mean AI = 0.121, range = 0.015–0.350) were mate-guarded only for 1 or 2 d, whereas several females with AI with the guarding male below the mean were guarded for >5 d or even for 14 d in the case of one female. Finally, a few low-ranking females were guarded for >10 d whereas many high-ranking females were mate-guarded for only 1 or 2 d.Fig. 1


Costs of and Investment in Mate-Guarding in Wild Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Influences of Female Characteristics and Male-Female Social Bonds.

Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Rahmi E, Agil M, Fauzan PA, Engelhardt A - Int. J. Primatol. (2014)

Number of days each female long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was observed being mate-guarded by a given male depending on male–female association index (a) and female rank (b), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). Parous females are depicted with circles and iparous ones with triangles. Each point represents a given male-female guarding dyad.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129240&req=5

Fig1: Number of days each female long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) was observed being mate-guarded by a given male depending on male–female association index (a) and female rank (b), at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia (2010–2011). Parous females are depicted with circles and iparous ones with triangles. Each point represents a given male-female guarding dyad.
Mentions: The number of mate-guarding days was generally not related to female parity, rank, or male–female AI (Fig. 1). Whereas males spent more time on mate-guarding parous than iparous females in two groups (C and KA), the opposite occurred in the third group (KB) (Table I). Of all females that were observed to be mate-guarded, iparous females were guarded by a given male between 1 and 20 d and parous females between 1 and 28 d. Further, several females with an AI with the guarding male that was above the mean (mean AI = 0.121, range = 0.015–0.350) were mate-guarded only for 1 or 2 d, whereas several females with AI with the guarding male below the mean were guarded for >5 d or even for 14 d in the case of one female. Finally, a few low-ranking females were guarded for >10 d whereas many high-ranking females were mate-guarded for only 1 or 2 d.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males.Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels.Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jr. Research Group Primate Sexual Selection, German Primate Centre, 37077 Göttingen, Germany ; Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males. We carried out our study during two reproductive seasons on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia. We combined behavioral observations on male locomotion and activity with noninvasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoids (fGC). Males spent less time feeding when mate-guarding iparous females than when mate-guarding parous females and tended to have higher fGC levels when mate-guarding low-ranking iparous females than when mate-guarding high-ranking iparous ones. Evolution should thus favor male choice for high-ranking parous females because such a decision brings benefits at proximate (reduced costs of mate-guarding) and ultimate (higher reproductive value) levels. Further, male investment in mate-guarding was flexible and contingent on female reproductive and social value. Males were more vigilant and more aggressive toward other males when mate-guarding females to which they were strongly bonded and/or high-ranking ones than when mate-guarding other females. Our findings bring a new dimension to the study of mate choice by showing that males not only mate preferentially with high-quality females but may also aim to secure paternity with these females through optimized monopolization.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus