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Exploring the innate immunological response of an alternative nonhuman primate model of infectious disease; the common marmoset.

Nelson M, Loveday M - J Immunol Res (2014)

Bottom Line: In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary.Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals.Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Science Department, DSTL, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK.

ABSTRACT
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell types and activation markers from naïve and after an acute bacterial infection in spleen and lung tissues. Samples were taken at the humane endpoint approx. 4 days after challenge. B, T, NK cells, neutrophils, and macrophages expressed as percentage total whole cells, activation markers as percentages of parent cell type. (a) Naïve lung, (b) lung after aerosol challenge, (c) lung after systemic challenge, (d) naïve spleen, (e) spleen after aerosol challenge, and (f) spleen after systemic challenge.
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fig3: Cell types and activation markers from naïve and after an acute bacterial infection in spleen and lung tissues. Samples were taken at the humane endpoint approx. 4 days after challenge. B, T, NK cells, neutrophils, and macrophages expressed as percentage total whole cells, activation markers as percentages of parent cell type. (a) Naïve lung, (b) lung after aerosol challenge, (c) lung after systemic challenge, (d) naïve spleen, (e) spleen after aerosol challenge, and (f) spleen after systemic challenge.

Mentions: These markers have been used to expand on our previously published work to determine changes in the activation status of basic cell types in response to an acute bacterial infection. Animals were challenged with bacteria at a comparable dose either by inhalation (n = 22) or by a systemic route (n = 12) and humanely killed once they had reached a humane endpoint (between day 4 and day 5 after challenge). Figure 3 illustrates the cellular activity in representative tissues following inhalational (Figures 3(b) and 3(e)) or systemic challenge (Figures 3(c) and 3(f)) and in naïve samples (Figures 3(a) and 3(d)). Naïve T and NK cells appear to have similar resting activation states regardless of origin, whereas neutrophils and macrophages have differential expression of activation, for example, CD16. In response to disease, the proportions of the cell types appear to remain relativity constant; however, the activation markers provide more detailed information and show involvement of all the cell types explored. Extensive activation was to be expected considering that the samples were taken at the humane endpoint. There is also extensive variation between the samples from the infected animals, again indicative of the late time point in infection.


Exploring the innate immunological response of an alternative nonhuman primate model of infectious disease; the common marmoset.

Nelson M, Loveday M - J Immunol Res (2014)

Cell types and activation markers from naïve and after an acute bacterial infection in spleen and lung tissues. Samples were taken at the humane endpoint approx. 4 days after challenge. B, T, NK cells, neutrophils, and macrophages expressed as percentage total whole cells, activation markers as percentages of parent cell type. (a) Naïve lung, (b) lung after aerosol challenge, (c) lung after systemic challenge, (d) naïve spleen, (e) spleen after aerosol challenge, and (f) spleen after systemic challenge.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4129158&req=5

fig3: Cell types and activation markers from naïve and after an acute bacterial infection in spleen and lung tissues. Samples were taken at the humane endpoint approx. 4 days after challenge. B, T, NK cells, neutrophils, and macrophages expressed as percentage total whole cells, activation markers as percentages of parent cell type. (a) Naïve lung, (b) lung after aerosol challenge, (c) lung after systemic challenge, (d) naïve spleen, (e) spleen after aerosol challenge, and (f) spleen after systemic challenge.
Mentions: These markers have been used to expand on our previously published work to determine changes in the activation status of basic cell types in response to an acute bacterial infection. Animals were challenged with bacteria at a comparable dose either by inhalation (n = 22) or by a systemic route (n = 12) and humanely killed once they had reached a humane endpoint (between day 4 and day 5 after challenge). Figure 3 illustrates the cellular activity in representative tissues following inhalational (Figures 3(b) and 3(e)) or systemic challenge (Figures 3(c) and 3(f)) and in naïve samples (Figures 3(a) and 3(d)). Naïve T and NK cells appear to have similar resting activation states regardless of origin, whereas neutrophils and macrophages have differential expression of activation, for example, CD16. In response to disease, the proportions of the cell types appear to remain relativity constant; however, the activation markers provide more detailed information and show involvement of all the cell types explored. Extensive activation was to be expected considering that the samples were taken at the humane endpoint. There is also extensive variation between the samples from the infected animals, again indicative of the late time point in infection.

Bottom Line: In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary.Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals.Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Science Department, DSTL, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK.

ABSTRACT
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly being utilised as a nonhuman primate model for human disease, ranging from autoimmune to infectious disease. In order to fully exploit these models, meaningful comparison to the human host response is necessary. Commercially available reagents, primarily targeted to human cells, were utilised to assess the phenotype and activation status of key immune cell types and cytokines in naive and infected animals. Single cell suspensions of blood, spleen, and lung were examined. Generally, the phenotype of cells was comparable between humans and marmosets, with approximately 63% of all lymphocytes in the blood of marmosets being T cells, 25% B-cells, and 12% NK cells. The percentage of neutrophils in marmoset blood were more similar to human values than mouse values. Comparison of the activation status of cells following experimental systemic or inhalational infection exhibited different trends in different tissues, most obvious in cell types active in the innate immune response. This work significantly enhances the ability to understand the immune response in these animals and fortifies their use as models of infectious disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus