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Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses.

Pan CH, Liu WT, Bien MY, Lin IC, Hsiao TC, Ma CM, Lai CH, Chen MC, Chuang KJ, Chuang HC - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs.The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences.This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ; School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGFβ signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles.

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Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 with and without the addition of dH2O and a 10% FBS solution.Abbreviations: ZnONP, zinc oxide nanoparticle; FBS, fetal bovine serum.
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f1-ijn-9-3631: Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 with and without the addition of dH2O and a 10% FBS solution.Abbreviations: ZnONP, zinc oxide nanoparticle; FBS, fetal bovine serum.

Mentions: ZnONPs, including ZnONP20 (average diameter of 20 nm), ZnONP90 (average diameter of 90–210 nm), and Al-ZnONP20 (average diameter of 20–40 nm), were used to investigate the effects of the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs on a biological system. The supplier provided the basic characteristics of the ZnONPs (Table 1). Morphological and elemental changes in the ZnONPs pre- and postsuspension in dH2O and 10% FBS-containing medium (Figure 1) were examined first. We found that ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 were regular in shape, and significant morphological change did not occur when the ZnONPs were suspended in dH2O or 10% FBS-containing medium. The EDX results did not show significant difference in Zn and O elements between ZnONP20 and ZnONP90 when suspended in dH2O (86%–93% for Zn and 4%–7% for O) or 10% FBS-containing medium (86%–91% for Zn and 5%–8% for O). Al was only detected in Al-ZnONP20, which consisted of 1% Al, 85%–86% Zn, and 7% O when suspended in dH2O or 10% FBS-containing medium.


Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses.

Pan CH, Liu WT, Bien MY, Lin IC, Hsiao TC, Ma CM, Lai CH, Chen MC, Chuang KJ, Chuang HC - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 with and without the addition of dH2O and a 10% FBS solution.Abbreviations: ZnONP, zinc oxide nanoparticle; FBS, fetal bovine serum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128792&req=5

f1-ijn-9-3631: Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses of ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 with and without the addition of dH2O and a 10% FBS solution.Abbreviations: ZnONP, zinc oxide nanoparticle; FBS, fetal bovine serum.
Mentions: ZnONPs, including ZnONP20 (average diameter of 20 nm), ZnONP90 (average diameter of 90–210 nm), and Al-ZnONP20 (average diameter of 20–40 nm), were used to investigate the effects of the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs on a biological system. The supplier provided the basic characteristics of the ZnONPs (Table 1). Morphological and elemental changes in the ZnONPs pre- and postsuspension in dH2O and 10% FBS-containing medium (Figure 1) were examined first. We found that ZnONP20, ZnONP90, and Al-ZnONP20 were regular in shape, and significant morphological change did not occur when the ZnONPs were suspended in dH2O or 10% FBS-containing medium. The EDX results did not show significant difference in Zn and O elements between ZnONP20 and ZnONP90 when suspended in dH2O (86%–93% for Zn and 4%–7% for O) or 10% FBS-containing medium (86%–91% for Zn and 5%–8% for O). Al was only detected in Al-ZnONP20, which consisted of 1% Al, 85%–86% Zn, and 7% O when suspended in dH2O or 10% FBS-containing medium.

Bottom Line: The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs.The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences.This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Labor, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ; School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGFβ signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus