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Antibiotic susceptibilities of bacteria isolated within the oral flora of Florida blacktip sharks: guidance for empiric antibiotic therapy.

Unger NR, Ritter E, Borrego R, Goodman J, Osiyemi OO - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed.Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Sharks possess a variety of pathogenic bacteria in their oral cavity that may potentially be transferred into humans during a bite. The aim of the presented study focused on the identification of the bacteria present in the mouths of live blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, and the extent that these bacteria possess multi-drug resistance. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity of nineteen live blacktip sharks, which were subsequently released. The average fork length was 146 cm (±11), suggesting the blacktip sharks were mature adults at least 8 years old. All swabs underwent standard microbiological work-up with identification of organisms and reporting of antibiotic susceptibilities using an automated microbiology system. The oral samples revealed an average of 2.72 (±1.4) bacterial isolates per shark. Gram-negative bacteria, making up 61% of all bacterial isolates, were significantly (p<0.001) more common than gram-positive bacteria (39%). The most common organisms were Vibrio spp. (28%), various coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (16%), and Pasteurella spp. (12%). The overall resistance rate was 12% for all antibiotics tested with nearly 43% of bacteria resistant to at least one antibiotic. Multi-drug resistance was seen in 4% of bacteria. No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed. Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline.

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Correlation between the fork length (cm) with the mean number of resistant antibiotics per shark.
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pone-0104577-g002: Correlation between the fork length (cm) with the mean number of resistant antibiotics per shark.

Mentions: Antibiotic susceptibilities for isolated and tested gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are listed in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. All gram-negative bacteria tested were 100% susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, piperacillin/tazobactam and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. All gram-positive bacteria tested were 100% susceptible to fluoroquinolones, daptomycin, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (except Enterococcus faecium), vancomycin and tetracycline. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 42% and 0% in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus, respectively. No association was found between fork length and resistance (r = −0.0218, p = 0.389) (Figure 2).


Antibiotic susceptibilities of bacteria isolated within the oral flora of Florida blacktip sharks: guidance for empiric antibiotic therapy.

Unger NR, Ritter E, Borrego R, Goodman J, Osiyemi OO - PLoS ONE (2014)

Correlation between the fork length (cm) with the mean number of resistant antibiotics per shark.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128751&req=5

pone-0104577-g002: Correlation between the fork length (cm) with the mean number of resistant antibiotics per shark.
Mentions: Antibiotic susceptibilities for isolated and tested gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are listed in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. All gram-negative bacteria tested were 100% susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, piperacillin/tazobactam and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. All gram-positive bacteria tested were 100% susceptible to fluoroquinolones, daptomycin, linezolid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (except Enterococcus faecium), vancomycin and tetracycline. Oxacillin resistance was observed in 42% and 0% in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus, respectively. No association was found between fork length and resistance (r = −0.0218, p = 0.389) (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed.Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Sharks possess a variety of pathogenic bacteria in their oral cavity that may potentially be transferred into humans during a bite. The aim of the presented study focused on the identification of the bacteria present in the mouths of live blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, and the extent that these bacteria possess multi-drug resistance. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity of nineteen live blacktip sharks, which were subsequently released. The average fork length was 146 cm (±11), suggesting the blacktip sharks were mature adults at least 8 years old. All swabs underwent standard microbiological work-up with identification of organisms and reporting of antibiotic susceptibilities using an automated microbiology system. The oral samples revealed an average of 2.72 (±1.4) bacterial isolates per shark. Gram-negative bacteria, making up 61% of all bacterial isolates, were significantly (p<0.001) more common than gram-positive bacteria (39%). The most common organisms were Vibrio spp. (28%), various coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (16%), and Pasteurella spp. (12%). The overall resistance rate was 12% for all antibiotics tested with nearly 43% of bacteria resistant to at least one antibiotic. Multi-drug resistance was seen in 4% of bacteria. No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed. Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus