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Structural and functional aspects relating to cost and benefit of rich club organization in the human cerebral cortex.

Collin G, Sporns O, Mandl RC, van den Heuvel MP - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

Bottom Line: Recent findings have demonstrated that a small set of highly connected brain regions may play a central role in enabling efficient communication between cortical regions, together forming a densely interconnected "rich club." However, the density and spatial layout of the rich club also suggest that it constitutes a costly feature of brain architecture.Our findings suggest that rich club regions and rich club connections exhibit high levels of wiring volume, high levels of white matter organization, high levels of metabolic energy usage, long maturational trajectories, more variable regional time series, and more inter-regional functional couplings.The high cost of the rich club may, however, be offset by significant functional benefits that the rich club confers to the brain network as a whole.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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Rich club organization. (A) Rich club curve Φ(k) averaged over the group of subjects (black line), rich club curve Φrandom(k) averaged over the group of subjects (gray line, mean of 1000 random networks per subject, averaged over the group of subjects), and the normalized rich club curve Φnorm(k) (i.e., the ratio between Φ(k) and Φrandom(k), red line). Figure shows a significant Φnorm(k) >1 (over the group of subjects, P < 0.05, Bonferroni) for k > 19 to k > 23. The rich club selected as the top 12% of nodes, matching k > 19. The selected rich club included bilateral precuneus, superior frontal cortex, insular cortex, and superior parietal cortex (red nodes in panel C). (B) Selection of the rich club allowed for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club (red nodes) and non-rich club (gray nodes) members and a categorization of the connections of the network into rich club (red), feeder (orange), and local (yellow) connections. (C) Panel shows a graph plot of a group-average reconstructed structural brain network. Nodes reflect cortical brain regions. Connections between nodes represent reconstructed white matter pathways. Plot shows connections that were found to be present in at least 60% of the subjects (de Reus and van den Heuvel 2013). The size of the nodes reflects the number of connections (i.e., group-average degree) of each brain region.
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BHT064F1: Rich club organization. (A) Rich club curve Φ(k) averaged over the group of subjects (black line), rich club curve Φrandom(k) averaged over the group of subjects (gray line, mean of 1000 random networks per subject, averaged over the group of subjects), and the normalized rich club curve Φnorm(k) (i.e., the ratio between Φ(k) and Φrandom(k), red line). Figure shows a significant Φnorm(k) >1 (over the group of subjects, P < 0.05, Bonferroni) for k > 19 to k > 23. The rich club selected as the top 12% of nodes, matching k > 19. The selected rich club included bilateral precuneus, superior frontal cortex, insular cortex, and superior parietal cortex (red nodes in panel C). (B) Selection of the rich club allowed for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club (red nodes) and non-rich club (gray nodes) members and a categorization of the connections of the network into rich club (red), feeder (orange), and local (yellow) connections. (C) Panel shows a graph plot of a group-average reconstructed structural brain network. Nodes reflect cortical brain regions. Connections between nodes represent reconstructed white matter pathways. Plot shows connections that were found to be present in at least 60% of the subjects (de Reus and van den Heuvel 2013). The size of the nodes reflects the number of connections (i.e., group-average degree) of each brain region.

Mentions: Definition of the rich club allows for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club and non-rich club nodes (van den Heuvel and Sporns 2011). In turn, categorization of the nodes allows for the classification of the network connections into 3 classes: “rich club” connections, linking rich club nodes to each other; “feeder” connections linking rich club nodes to non-rich club nodes; and “local” connections linking non-rich club nodes to each other. Figure 1B presents a schematic illustration of the 2 classes of nodes and the 3 classes of connections.Figure 1.


Structural and functional aspects relating to cost and benefit of rich club organization in the human cerebral cortex.

Collin G, Sporns O, Mandl RC, van den Heuvel MP - Cereb. Cortex (2013)

Rich club organization. (A) Rich club curve Φ(k) averaged over the group of subjects (black line), rich club curve Φrandom(k) averaged over the group of subjects (gray line, mean of 1000 random networks per subject, averaged over the group of subjects), and the normalized rich club curve Φnorm(k) (i.e., the ratio between Φ(k) and Φrandom(k), red line). Figure shows a significant Φnorm(k) >1 (over the group of subjects, P < 0.05, Bonferroni) for k > 19 to k > 23. The rich club selected as the top 12% of nodes, matching k > 19. The selected rich club included bilateral precuneus, superior frontal cortex, insular cortex, and superior parietal cortex (red nodes in panel C). (B) Selection of the rich club allowed for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club (red nodes) and non-rich club (gray nodes) members and a categorization of the connections of the network into rich club (red), feeder (orange), and local (yellow) connections. (C) Panel shows a graph plot of a group-average reconstructed structural brain network. Nodes reflect cortical brain regions. Connections between nodes represent reconstructed white matter pathways. Plot shows connections that were found to be present in at least 60% of the subjects (de Reus and van den Heuvel 2013). The size of the nodes reflects the number of connections (i.e., group-average degree) of each brain region.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
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BHT064F1: Rich club organization. (A) Rich club curve Φ(k) averaged over the group of subjects (black line), rich club curve Φrandom(k) averaged over the group of subjects (gray line, mean of 1000 random networks per subject, averaged over the group of subjects), and the normalized rich club curve Φnorm(k) (i.e., the ratio between Φ(k) and Φrandom(k), red line). Figure shows a significant Φnorm(k) >1 (over the group of subjects, P < 0.05, Bonferroni) for k > 19 to k > 23. The rich club selected as the top 12% of nodes, matching k > 19. The selected rich club included bilateral precuneus, superior frontal cortex, insular cortex, and superior parietal cortex (red nodes in panel C). (B) Selection of the rich club allowed for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club (red nodes) and non-rich club (gray nodes) members and a categorization of the connections of the network into rich club (red), feeder (orange), and local (yellow) connections. (C) Panel shows a graph plot of a group-average reconstructed structural brain network. Nodes reflect cortical brain regions. Connections between nodes represent reconstructed white matter pathways. Plot shows connections that were found to be present in at least 60% of the subjects (de Reus and van den Heuvel 2013). The size of the nodes reflects the number of connections (i.e., group-average degree) of each brain region.
Mentions: Definition of the rich club allows for the classification of the nodes of the network into rich club and non-rich club nodes (van den Heuvel and Sporns 2011). In turn, categorization of the nodes allows for the classification of the network connections into 3 classes: “rich club” connections, linking rich club nodes to each other; “feeder” connections linking rich club nodes to non-rich club nodes; and “local” connections linking non-rich club nodes to each other. Figure 1B presents a schematic illustration of the 2 classes of nodes and the 3 classes of connections.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Recent findings have demonstrated that a small set of highly connected brain regions may play a central role in enabling efficient communication between cortical regions, together forming a densely interconnected "rich club." However, the density and spatial layout of the rich club also suggest that it constitutes a costly feature of brain architecture.Our findings suggest that rich club regions and rich club connections exhibit high levels of wiring volume, high levels of white matter organization, high levels of metabolic energy usage, long maturational trajectories, more variable regional time series, and more inter-regional functional couplings.The high cost of the rich club may, however, be offset by significant functional benefits that the rich club confers to the brain network as a whole.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus