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Effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol supplementation on osteoporosis induced by testosterone deficiency in rats.

Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S - Clin Interv Aging (2014)

Bottom Line: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group.The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05).Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.

Methods: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.

Results: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

Conclusion: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation/bone formation in rats. The bar charts (A–I) show the relative expression of genes related to osteoblast/bone formation. The data are shown as the mean with standard error of the mean.Notes:bSignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group; dsignificant difference versus the AnTT group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.
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f4-cia-9-1247: Relative expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation/bone formation in rats. The bar charts (A–I) show the relative expression of genes related to osteoblast/bone formation. The data are shown as the mean with standard error of the mean.Notes:bSignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group; dsignificant difference versus the AnTT group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.

Mentions: In general, gene expression was not significantly different between the sham and orchidectomized groups (P>0.05). RANKL and PPARG gene expression was significantly lower in the testosterone group than in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05). Treatment with tocotrienol significantly increased the expression of several bone formation genes, such as ALPL, when compared with the sham and orchidectomized groups (P<0.05), COL1α1 when compared with the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), and CTNNB1 when compared with the sham group (P<0.05). Tocotrienol also significantly suppressed expression of RANKL and PPARG mRNA when compared with the orchidectomized group (P<0.05). Expression of RUNX-2 and SPARC was also higher, albeit not significantly so, in the AnTT group when compared with the sham and orchidectomized groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in expression of osteoclast-related genes between the groups with and without AnTT treatment (P>0.05; Figures 4 and 5).


Effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol supplementation on osteoporosis induced by testosterone deficiency in rats.

Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S - Clin Interv Aging (2014)

Relative expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation/bone formation in rats. The bar charts (A–I) show the relative expression of genes related to osteoblast/bone formation. The data are shown as the mean with standard error of the mean.Notes:bSignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group; dsignificant difference versus the AnTT group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128692&req=5

f4-cia-9-1247: Relative expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation/bone formation in rats. The bar charts (A–I) show the relative expression of genes related to osteoblast/bone formation. The data are shown as the mean with standard error of the mean.Notes:bSignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group; dsignificant difference versus the AnTT group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity.
Mentions: In general, gene expression was not significantly different between the sham and orchidectomized groups (P>0.05). RANKL and PPARG gene expression was significantly lower in the testosterone group than in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05). Treatment with tocotrienol significantly increased the expression of several bone formation genes, such as ALPL, when compared with the sham and orchidectomized groups (P<0.05), COL1α1 when compared with the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), and CTNNB1 when compared with the sham group (P<0.05). Tocotrienol also significantly suppressed expression of RANKL and PPARG mRNA when compared with the orchidectomized group (P<0.05). Expression of RUNX-2 and SPARC was also higher, albeit not significantly so, in the AnTT group when compared with the sham and orchidectomized groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in expression of osteoclast-related genes between the groups with and without AnTT treatment (P>0.05; Figures 4 and 5).

Bottom Line: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group.The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05).Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.

Methods: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.

Results: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

Conclusion: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus