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Effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol supplementation on osteoporosis induced by testosterone deficiency in rats.

Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S - Clin Interv Aging (2014)

Bottom Line: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group.The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05).Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.

Methods: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.

Results: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

Conclusion: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Bone structural indices in proximal tibia of rats evaluated using μCT. The bar charts (A–F) show bone structural indices at the proximal tibia evaluated using μCT. The data are shown as the mean and standard error of the mean.Notes:aSignificant difference versus the baseline group; bsignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; SMI, Structural model index; Conn.D, connectivity density; BV/TV, bone volume over total volume; Tb. N., trabecular number; Tb. Th., trabecular thickness; Tb. Sp., trabecular separation.
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f2-cia-9-1247: Bone structural indices in proximal tibia of rats evaluated using μCT. The bar charts (A–F) show bone structural indices at the proximal tibia evaluated using μCT. The data are shown as the mean and standard error of the mean.Notes:aSignificant difference versus the baseline group; bsignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; SMI, Structural model index; Conn.D, connectivity density; BV/TV, bone volume over total volume; Tb. N., trabecular number; Tb. Th., trabecular thickness; Tb. Sp., trabecular separation.

Mentions: Orchidectomy resulted in decreased bone quality, as indicated by a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density, and a significant increase in trabecular separation in the orchidectomized group when compared with the sham group using μCT at the proximal tibia (P<0.05). Similar structural changes were observed at the distal femur, ie, the orchidectomized group showed significant reductions in trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and a significant increase in trabecular separation when compared with the sham group (P<0.05). Treatment with testosterone was able to prevent these degenerative changes completely (P<0.05), and treatment with tocotrienol was able to prevent adverse changes at the distal femur (P<0.05). Structural indices at the proximal tibia showed a trend towards improvement in the AnTT group when compared with the orchidectomized group, but only values for trabecular separation reached statistical significance (P<0.05; Figure 2 and Figure 3A–D).


Effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol supplementation on osteoporosis induced by testosterone deficiency in rats.

Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S - Clin Interv Aging (2014)

Bone structural indices in proximal tibia of rats evaluated using μCT. The bar charts (A–F) show bone structural indices at the proximal tibia evaluated using μCT. The data are shown as the mean and standard error of the mean.Notes:aSignificant difference versus the baseline group; bsignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; SMI, Structural model index; Conn.D, connectivity density; BV/TV, bone volume over total volume; Tb. N., trabecular number; Tb. Th., trabecular thickness; Tb. Sp., trabecular separation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128692&req=5

f2-cia-9-1247: Bone structural indices in proximal tibia of rats evaluated using μCT. The bar charts (A–F) show bone structural indices at the proximal tibia evaluated using μCT. The data are shown as the mean and standard error of the mean.Notes:aSignificant difference versus the baseline group; bsignificant difference versus the sham group; csignificant difference versus the orchidectomized group. The statistical significance value is set at P<0.05.Abbreviations: AnTT, annatto tocotrienol-supplemented group; BL, baseline group; ORX, orchidectomized group; SH, sham-operated group; TE, testosterone enanthate-supplemented group; SMI, Structural model index; Conn.D, connectivity density; BV/TV, bone volume over total volume; Tb. N., trabecular number; Tb. Th., trabecular thickness; Tb. Sp., trabecular separation.
Mentions: Orchidectomy resulted in decreased bone quality, as indicated by a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity density, and a significant increase in trabecular separation in the orchidectomized group when compared with the sham group using μCT at the proximal tibia (P<0.05). Similar structural changes were observed at the distal femur, ie, the orchidectomized group showed significant reductions in trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and a significant increase in trabecular separation when compared with the sham group (P<0.05). Treatment with testosterone was able to prevent these degenerative changes completely (P<0.05), and treatment with tocotrienol was able to prevent adverse changes at the distal femur (P<0.05). Structural indices at the proximal tibia showed a trend towards improvement in the AnTT group when compared with the orchidectomized group, but only values for trabecular separation reached statistical significance (P<0.05; Figure 2 and Figure 3A–D).

Bottom Line: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group.The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05).Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.

Methods: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.

Results: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).

Conclusion: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus