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Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

Lazar A, Coll A, Dobnik D, Baebler S, Bedina-Zavec A, Zel J, Gruden K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs.The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter.These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

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Phylogenetic tree of potato MKK6 and its orthologues in different plant species, divided into classes.The species of origin for each MKK is marked by species acronym before the protein name: Cr, Capsella rubella; Aly, Arabidopsis lyrata; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Br, Brassica rapa; Bn, Brassica napus; Gh, Gossypium hirsutum; Pp, Prunus persica; Mt, Medicago trunculata; Gm, Glycine max; Pt, Populus trichocarpa; Rc, Ricinus communis; Vv, Vitis vinifera; Oo, Origanum onites; St, Solanum tuberosum; Le, Solanum lycopersicum (Lycopersicum esculetum); Nt, Nicotiana tabacum; Na, Nicotiana attenuata; Nb, Nicotiana benthamiana; Ma, Musa acuminata; Hv, Hordeum vulgare, Ata, Aegilops tauschii; Tu, Triticum urartu; Bd, Brachypodium distachyon; Os, Oryza sativa, Og, Oryza glaberrima; Ob, Oryza brachyantha; Si, Setaria italica; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays, Ps, Picea sitchensis; Sm, Selaginella moellendorffii. Potato MKK6 is marked with red dot. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
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pone-0104553-g003: Phylogenetic tree of potato MKK6 and its orthologues in different plant species, divided into classes.The species of origin for each MKK is marked by species acronym before the protein name: Cr, Capsella rubella; Aly, Arabidopsis lyrata; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Br, Brassica rapa; Bn, Brassica napus; Gh, Gossypium hirsutum; Pp, Prunus persica; Mt, Medicago trunculata; Gm, Glycine max; Pt, Populus trichocarpa; Rc, Ricinus communis; Vv, Vitis vinifera; Oo, Origanum onites; St, Solanum tuberosum; Le, Solanum lycopersicum (Lycopersicum esculetum); Nt, Nicotiana tabacum; Na, Nicotiana attenuata; Nb, Nicotiana benthamiana; Ma, Musa acuminata; Hv, Hordeum vulgare, Ata, Aegilops tauschii; Tu, Triticum urartu; Bd, Brachypodium distachyon; Os, Oryza sativa, Og, Oryza glaberrima; Ob, Oryza brachyantha; Si, Setaria italica; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays, Ps, Picea sitchensis; Sm, Selaginella moellendorffii. Potato MKK6 is marked with red dot. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.

Mentions: To study the sequence diversity and evolution of the MKK6 gene, we performed a phylogenetic analysis within the plant kingdom. We identified 39 plant MKK6 orthologues among higher plants. As well as for different families of Angiosperms, one MKK6 gene was also identified in Gymnosperms, and one in mosses (Figure 3 and File S3). MKK6 is mostly a single-copy gene, as these 39 MKK6 orthologues belong to 31 plant species (Figure 3).


Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

Lazar A, Coll A, Dobnik D, Baebler S, Bedina-Zavec A, Zel J, Gruden K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Phylogenetic tree of potato MKK6 and its orthologues in different plant species, divided into classes.The species of origin for each MKK is marked by species acronym before the protein name: Cr, Capsella rubella; Aly, Arabidopsis lyrata; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Br, Brassica rapa; Bn, Brassica napus; Gh, Gossypium hirsutum; Pp, Prunus persica; Mt, Medicago trunculata; Gm, Glycine max; Pt, Populus trichocarpa; Rc, Ricinus communis; Vv, Vitis vinifera; Oo, Origanum onites; St, Solanum tuberosum; Le, Solanum lycopersicum (Lycopersicum esculetum); Nt, Nicotiana tabacum; Na, Nicotiana attenuata; Nb, Nicotiana benthamiana; Ma, Musa acuminata; Hv, Hordeum vulgare, Ata, Aegilops tauschii; Tu, Triticum urartu; Bd, Brachypodium distachyon; Os, Oryza sativa, Og, Oryza glaberrima; Ob, Oryza brachyantha; Si, Setaria italica; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays, Ps, Picea sitchensis; Sm, Selaginella moellendorffii. Potato MKK6 is marked with red dot. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128675&req=5

pone-0104553-g003: Phylogenetic tree of potato MKK6 and its orthologues in different plant species, divided into classes.The species of origin for each MKK is marked by species acronym before the protein name: Cr, Capsella rubella; Aly, Arabidopsis lyrata; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Br, Brassica rapa; Bn, Brassica napus; Gh, Gossypium hirsutum; Pp, Prunus persica; Mt, Medicago trunculata; Gm, Glycine max; Pt, Populus trichocarpa; Rc, Ricinus communis; Vv, Vitis vinifera; Oo, Origanum onites; St, Solanum tuberosum; Le, Solanum lycopersicum (Lycopersicum esculetum); Nt, Nicotiana tabacum; Na, Nicotiana attenuata; Nb, Nicotiana benthamiana; Ma, Musa acuminata; Hv, Hordeum vulgare, Ata, Aegilops tauschii; Tu, Triticum urartu; Bd, Brachypodium distachyon; Os, Oryza sativa, Og, Oryza glaberrima; Ob, Oryza brachyantha; Si, Setaria italica; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays, Ps, Picea sitchensis; Sm, Selaginella moellendorffii. Potato MKK6 is marked with red dot. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
Mentions: To study the sequence diversity and evolution of the MKK6 gene, we performed a phylogenetic analysis within the plant kingdom. We identified 39 plant MKK6 orthologues among higher plants. As well as for different families of Angiosperms, one MKK6 gene was also identified in Gymnosperms, and one in mosses (Figure 3 and File S3). MKK6 is mostly a single-copy gene, as these 39 MKK6 orthologues belong to 31 plant species (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs.The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter.These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus