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Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

Lazar A, Coll A, Dobnik D, Baebler S, Bedina-Zavec A, Zel J, Gruden K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs.The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter.These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

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Phylogenetic tree of MKK family in A. thaliana and five Solanaceae species.The species are A. thaliana (At), potato (Sotub), tomato (Solyc), N. benthamiana (Nb), N. attenuata (Na) and N. tabacum (Nt). Genes are grouped into 4 groups: A (green), B (red), C (blue) and D (orange) [4]. Potato genes are marked with dots. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
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pone-0104553-g001: Phylogenetic tree of MKK family in A. thaliana and five Solanaceae species.The species are A. thaliana (At), potato (Sotub), tomato (Solyc), N. benthamiana (Nb), N. attenuata (Na) and N. tabacum (Nt). Genes are grouped into 4 groups: A (green), B (red), C (blue) and D (orange) [4]. Potato genes are marked with dots. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.

Mentions: Our genome analysis of the potato, tomato and Nicotiana attenuata genomes identified five MKK genes in each, with four in the tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. genome, and eight in the N. benthamiana genome (Figure 1). Based on the phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and five Solanaceae species, for only two of the A. thaliana genes (AtMKK3, AtMKK6) a specific orthologue could be assigned from potato, tomato or Nicotiana spp., while the other MKKs form larger orthologue groups. The MKK family in potato, tomato and Nicotiana spp. can also be divided into four groups: group A (A. thaliana and N. benthamiana, three genes; potato, tomato, N. tabacum and N. attenuata, two genes); B (N. benthamiana, two genes; the rest, one gene each); C (A. thaliana and N. benthamiana, two genes; potato, tomato, N. tabacum and N. attenuata, one gene each); and D (A. thaliana, four genes; Solanaceae spp., one gene each, except N. tabacum which has none). Out of the five examined Solanaceae spp., N. benthamiana is the only one of these in which duplication of the MKK genes occurred after speciation and thus N. benthamiana has possible paralogues for MKK3 (NbS00014007g0022.1, NbS00037566g0012.1), MKK4/5 (NbS00012713g0030.1, NbS00006609g0002.1) and MKK6 (NbS00006857g0015.1, NbS00045036g0007.1) (Figure 1).


Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

Lazar A, Coll A, Dobnik D, Baebler S, Bedina-Zavec A, Zel J, Gruden K - PLoS ONE (2014)

Phylogenetic tree of MKK family in A. thaliana and five Solanaceae species.The species are A. thaliana (At), potato (Sotub), tomato (Solyc), N. benthamiana (Nb), N. attenuata (Na) and N. tabacum (Nt). Genes are grouped into 4 groups: A (green), B (red), C (blue) and D (orange) [4]. Potato genes are marked with dots. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128675&req=5

pone-0104553-g001: Phylogenetic tree of MKK family in A. thaliana and five Solanaceae species.The species are A. thaliana (At), potato (Sotub), tomato (Solyc), N. benthamiana (Nb), N. attenuata (Na) and N. tabacum (Nt). Genes are grouped into 4 groups: A (green), B (red), C (blue) and D (orange) [4]. Potato genes are marked with dots. The numbers on the nodes are percentages from a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replicates. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.06 substitutions per site.
Mentions: Our genome analysis of the potato, tomato and Nicotiana attenuata genomes identified five MKK genes in each, with four in the tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. genome, and eight in the N. benthamiana genome (Figure 1). Based on the phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and five Solanaceae species, for only two of the A. thaliana genes (AtMKK3, AtMKK6) a specific orthologue could be assigned from potato, tomato or Nicotiana spp., while the other MKKs form larger orthologue groups. The MKK family in potato, tomato and Nicotiana spp. can also be divided into four groups: group A (A. thaliana and N. benthamiana, three genes; potato, tomato, N. tabacum and N. attenuata, two genes); B (N. benthamiana, two genes; the rest, one gene each); C (A. thaliana and N. benthamiana, two genes; potato, tomato, N. tabacum and N. attenuata, one gene each); and D (A. thaliana, four genes; Solanaceae spp., one gene each, except N. tabacum which has none). Out of the five examined Solanaceae spp., N. benthamiana is the only one of these in which duplication of the MKK genes occurred after speciation and thus N. benthamiana has possible paralogues for MKK3 (NbS00014007g0022.1, NbS00037566g0012.1), MKK4/5 (NbS00012713g0030.1, NbS00006609g0002.1) and MKK6 (NbS00006857g0015.1, NbS00045036g0007.1) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs.The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter.These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus