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Shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal--the cottontail rabbit.

Root JJ, Shriner SA, Bentler KT, Gidlewski T, Mooers NL, Spraker TR, VanDalen KK, Sullivan HJ, Franklin AB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera.This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere.These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV) infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations.

Methodology/principal findings: To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6). All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (≤ 10(6.94) PCR EID50 equivalents/mL) and orally (≤ 10(5.09) PCR EID50 equivalents/mL). However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera.

Conclusions/significance: To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances.

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Mean nasal and oral shedding of avian influenza virus RNA of desert cottontails experimentally infected with a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.Shedding was assessed from nasal washes and oral swabs by RRT-PCR. Results are presented as log10 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. Vertical bars represent the maximum and minimum quantities detected on a given day.
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pone-0102513-g001: Mean nasal and oral shedding of avian influenza virus RNA of desert cottontails experimentally infected with a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.Shedding was assessed from nasal washes and oral swabs by RRT-PCR. Results are presented as log10 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. Vertical bars represent the maximum and minimum quantities detected on a given day.

Mentions: All inoculated animals yielded a minimum of 104.8 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL from nasal washes during the first DPI they were sampled (1 or 2 DPI; Figure 1). Nasal shedding peaked on 1 DPI yielding an average of 106.47 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL (range = 104.82 to 106.94; Figure 1). With one exception, all treatment cottontails yielded their highest nasal wash on the first day they were sampled. As expected, a declining trend in viral RNA was noted during 1–8 DPI. By 16 DPI, eight of fourteen (57.1%) test animals were suspect positive. At 22 DPI, a single cottontail still had evidence of nasal shedding of viral RNA. The nasal washes from the two control cottontails remained negative throughout the study. All nasal washes tested positive for live virus during 2 DPI; however, this figure was greatly reduced by 7 DPI, as a single nasal wash tested positive for live virus at this time point.


Shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal--the cottontail rabbit.

Root JJ, Shriner SA, Bentler KT, Gidlewski T, Mooers NL, Spraker TR, VanDalen KK, Sullivan HJ, Franklin AB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Mean nasal and oral shedding of avian influenza virus RNA of desert cottontails experimentally infected with a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.Shedding was assessed from nasal washes and oral swabs by RRT-PCR. Results are presented as log10 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. Vertical bars represent the maximum and minimum quantities detected on a given day.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128595&req=5

pone-0102513-g001: Mean nasal and oral shedding of avian influenza virus RNA of desert cottontails experimentally infected with a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.Shedding was assessed from nasal washes and oral swabs by RRT-PCR. Results are presented as log10 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. Vertical bars represent the maximum and minimum quantities detected on a given day.
Mentions: All inoculated animals yielded a minimum of 104.8 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL from nasal washes during the first DPI they were sampled (1 or 2 DPI; Figure 1). Nasal shedding peaked on 1 DPI yielding an average of 106.47 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL (range = 104.82 to 106.94; Figure 1). With one exception, all treatment cottontails yielded their highest nasal wash on the first day they were sampled. As expected, a declining trend in viral RNA was noted during 1–8 DPI. By 16 DPI, eight of fourteen (57.1%) test animals were suspect positive. At 22 DPI, a single cottontail still had evidence of nasal shedding of viral RNA. The nasal washes from the two control cottontails remained negative throughout the study. All nasal washes tested positive for live virus during 2 DPI; however, this figure was greatly reduced by 7 DPI, as a single nasal wash tested positive for live virus at this time point.

Bottom Line: Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera.This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere.These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV) infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations.

Methodology/principal findings: To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6). All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (≤ 10(6.94) PCR EID50 equivalents/mL) and orally (≤ 10(5.09) PCR EID50 equivalents/mL). However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera.

Conclusions/significance: To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus