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Maternal care affects the phenotype of a rat model for schizophrenia.

van Vugt RW, Meyer F, van Hulten JA, Vernooij J, Cools AR, Verheij MM, Martens GJ - Front Behav Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life.In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away).Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder caused by an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including early postnatal stressors. To explore this issue, we use two rat lines, apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display schizophrenia-relevant features and their phenotypic counterpart, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. These rat lines differ not only in their gnawing response to apomorphine, but also in their behavioral response to novelty (APO-SUS: high, APO-UNSUS: low). In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life. Cross-fostered APO-UNSUS animals showed decreased body weights as pups and decreased novelty-induced locomotor activity as adults (i.e., more extreme behavior), in accordance with the less appropriate maternal care provided by APO-SUS vs. their own APO-UNSUS mothers (i.e., the APO-SUS mother displayed less non-arched-back nursing and more self-grooming, and was more away from its nest). In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away). Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing. Thus, cross-fostering not only causes early postnatal stress shaping the phenotypes of the cross-fostered animals later in life, but also affects the phenotypes of the cross-fostering mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Apomorphine-induced gnawing of APO-SUS (A) and APO-UNSUS (B) mothers after fostering their own pups (white bars) or fostering pups from their phenotypic counterpart (black bars). * p < 0.05.
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Figure 5: Apomorphine-induced gnawing of APO-SUS (A) and APO-UNSUS (B) mothers after fostering their own pups (white bars) or fostering pups from their phenotypic counterpart (black bars). * p < 0.05.

Mentions: Two weeks after the mothers were separated from their pups, APO-SUS mothers having fostered APO-UNSUS pups showed a significant increase in apomorphine-induced gnawing when compared to APO-SUS mothers that had fostered their own pups (t(21) = 2.4, p < 0.05, Figure 5A), whereas cross-fostering had no effect on the gnawing behavior of the APO-UNSUS mothers (t(17) = 0.2, n.s., Figure 5B). The novelty-induced locomotor activity on the open field did not significantly differ between mothers having fostered their own pups and mothers having fostered pups of their phenotypic counterpart (APO-SUS mothers: t(16) = −1.1, n.s.; APO-UNSUS mothers: t(16) = −0.4, n.s., data not shown).


Maternal care affects the phenotype of a rat model for schizophrenia.

van Vugt RW, Meyer F, van Hulten JA, Vernooij J, Cools AR, Verheij MM, Martens GJ - Front Behav Neurosci (2014)

Apomorphine-induced gnawing of APO-SUS (A) and APO-UNSUS (B) mothers after fostering their own pups (white bars) or fostering pups from their phenotypic counterpart (black bars). * p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128220&req=5

Figure 5: Apomorphine-induced gnawing of APO-SUS (A) and APO-UNSUS (B) mothers after fostering their own pups (white bars) or fostering pups from their phenotypic counterpart (black bars). * p < 0.05.
Mentions: Two weeks after the mothers were separated from their pups, APO-SUS mothers having fostered APO-UNSUS pups showed a significant increase in apomorphine-induced gnawing when compared to APO-SUS mothers that had fostered their own pups (t(21) = 2.4, p < 0.05, Figure 5A), whereas cross-fostering had no effect on the gnawing behavior of the APO-UNSUS mothers (t(17) = 0.2, n.s., Figure 5B). The novelty-induced locomotor activity on the open field did not significantly differ between mothers having fostered their own pups and mothers having fostered pups of their phenotypic counterpart (APO-SUS mothers: t(16) = −1.1, n.s.; APO-UNSUS mothers: t(16) = −0.4, n.s., data not shown).

Bottom Line: In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life.In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away).Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder caused by an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including early postnatal stressors. To explore this issue, we use two rat lines, apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display schizophrenia-relevant features and their phenotypic counterpart, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. These rat lines differ not only in their gnawing response to apomorphine, but also in their behavioral response to novelty (APO-SUS: high, APO-UNSUS: low). In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life. Cross-fostered APO-UNSUS animals showed decreased body weights as pups and decreased novelty-induced locomotor activity as adults (i.e., more extreme behavior), in accordance with the less appropriate maternal care provided by APO-SUS vs. their own APO-UNSUS mothers (i.e., the APO-SUS mother displayed less non-arched-back nursing and more self-grooming, and was more away from its nest). In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away). Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing. Thus, cross-fostering not only causes early postnatal stress shaping the phenotypes of the cross-fostered animals later in life, but also affects the phenotypes of the cross-fostering mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus