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Maternal care affects the phenotype of a rat model for schizophrenia.

van Vugt RW, Meyer F, van Hulten JA, Vernooij J, Cools AR, Verheij MM, Martens GJ - Front Behav Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life.In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away).Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder caused by an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including early postnatal stressors. To explore this issue, we use two rat lines, apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display schizophrenia-relevant features and their phenotypic counterpart, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. These rat lines differ not only in their gnawing response to apomorphine, but also in their behavioral response to novelty (APO-SUS: high, APO-UNSUS: low). In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life. Cross-fostered APO-UNSUS animals showed decreased body weights as pups and decreased novelty-induced locomotor activity as adults (i.e., more extreme behavior), in accordance with the less appropriate maternal care provided by APO-SUS vs. their own APO-UNSUS mothers (i.e., the APO-SUS mother displayed less non-arched-back nursing and more self-grooming, and was more away from its nest). In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away). Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing. Thus, cross-fostering not only causes early postnatal stress shaping the phenotypes of the cross-fostered animals later in life, but also affects the phenotypes of the cross-fostering mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maternal care received from PND2 to PND8 by APO-SUS (left panel) and APO-UNSUS pups (right panel) when being unfostered (UF; white bars) or cross-fostered (CF; black bars). (A) and (E): non-arched-back nursing; (B) and (F): arched-back nursing; (C) and (G): mother away; (D) and (H): self-grooming. The total number of observations per nest was 700. * p < 0.05. Note: To avoid nest disturbance, gender-specific maternal care was not analyzed (see Section Discussion).
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Figure 1: Maternal care received from PND2 to PND8 by APO-SUS (left panel) and APO-UNSUS pups (right panel) when being unfostered (UF; white bars) or cross-fostered (CF; black bars). (A) and (E): non-arched-back nursing; (B) and (F): arched-back nursing; (C) and (G): mother away; (D) and (H): self-grooming. The total number of observations per nest was 700. * p < 0.05. Note: To avoid nest disturbance, gender-specific maternal care was not analyzed (see Section Discussion).

Mentions: Maternal care was statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with the factors rat type (APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS) and treatment (cross-fostered and unfostered), followed by post hoc Student’s t-tests where appropriate. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Given that open field locomotor activity of the pups at adulthood (t(141) = −6.3, p < 0.05) and weight at PND28 (t(134) = 2.5, p < 0.05) significantly differed between control males and females, the results regarding these two measures were analyzed per gender (see Figures 2,4 below). Maternal care received by the pups was analyzed in groups containing at least six mothers per group. The groups in which the measurements in the (grown-up) pups were obtained (weight, open field and apomorphine-induced gnawing score) consisted of at least 20 animals and were derived from at least four different nests. Data are expressed as average ± standard error of mean (SEM).


Maternal care affects the phenotype of a rat model for schizophrenia.

van Vugt RW, Meyer F, van Hulten JA, Vernooij J, Cools AR, Verheij MM, Martens GJ - Front Behav Neurosci (2014)

Maternal care received from PND2 to PND8 by APO-SUS (left panel) and APO-UNSUS pups (right panel) when being unfostered (UF; white bars) or cross-fostered (CF; black bars). (A) and (E): non-arched-back nursing; (B) and (F): arched-back nursing; (C) and (G): mother away; (D) and (H): self-grooming. The total number of observations per nest was 700. * p < 0.05. Note: To avoid nest disturbance, gender-specific maternal care was not analyzed (see Section Discussion).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128220&req=5

Figure 1: Maternal care received from PND2 to PND8 by APO-SUS (left panel) and APO-UNSUS pups (right panel) when being unfostered (UF; white bars) or cross-fostered (CF; black bars). (A) and (E): non-arched-back nursing; (B) and (F): arched-back nursing; (C) and (G): mother away; (D) and (H): self-grooming. The total number of observations per nest was 700. * p < 0.05. Note: To avoid nest disturbance, gender-specific maternal care was not analyzed (see Section Discussion).
Mentions: Maternal care was statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with the factors rat type (APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS) and treatment (cross-fostered and unfostered), followed by post hoc Student’s t-tests where appropriate. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Given that open field locomotor activity of the pups at adulthood (t(141) = −6.3, p < 0.05) and weight at PND28 (t(134) = 2.5, p < 0.05) significantly differed between control males and females, the results regarding these two measures were analyzed per gender (see Figures 2,4 below). Maternal care received by the pups was analyzed in groups containing at least six mothers per group. The groups in which the measurements in the (grown-up) pups were obtained (weight, open field and apomorphine-induced gnawing score) consisted of at least 20 animals and were derived from at least four different nests. Data are expressed as average ± standard error of mean (SEM).

Bottom Line: In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life.In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away).Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Animal Physiology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder caused by an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including early postnatal stressors. To explore this issue, we use two rat lines, apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display schizophrenia-relevant features and their phenotypic counterpart, apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rats. These rat lines differ not only in their gnawing response to apomorphine, but also in their behavioral response to novelty (APO-SUS: high, APO-UNSUS: low). In this study, we examined the effects of early postnatal cross-fostering on maternal care and on the phenotypes of the cross-fostered APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS animals later in life. Cross-fostered APO-UNSUS animals showed decreased body weights as pups and decreased novelty-induced locomotor activity as adults (i.e., more extreme behavior), in accordance with the less appropriate maternal care provided by APO-SUS vs. their own APO-UNSUS mothers (i.e., the APO-SUS mother displayed less non-arched-back nursing and more self-grooming, and was more away from its nest). In contrast, cross-fostered APO-SUS animals showed increased body weights as pups and reduced apomorphine-induced gnawing later in life (i.e., normalization of their extreme behavior), in line with the more appropriate maternal care provided by APO-UNSUS relative to their own APO-SUS mothers (i.e., the APO-UNSUS mother displayed more non-arched-back nursing and similar self-grooming, and was not more away). Furthermore, we found that, in addition to arched-back nursing, non-arched-back nursing was an important feature of maternal care, and that cross-fostering APO-SUS mothers, but not cross-fostering APO-UNSUS mothers, displayed increased apomorphine-induced gnawing. Thus, cross-fostering not only causes early postnatal stress shaping the phenotypes of the cross-fostered animals later in life, but also affects the phenotypes of the cross-fostering mothers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus