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Biofeedback-based training for stress management in daily hassles: an intervention study.

Kotozaki Y, Takeuchi H, Sekiguchi A, Yamamoto Y, Shinada T, Araki T, Takahashi K, Taki Y, Ogino T, Kiguchi M, Kawashima R - Brain Behav (2014)

Bottom Line: However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear.The GM regions are associated with the stress response, and, in general, these regions seem to be the most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress.Our findings suggest that our BFT is effective against the GM structures vulnerable to stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Ageing International Research Center, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University Sendai, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The day-to-day causes of stress are called daily hassles. Daily hassles are correlated with ill health. Biofeedback (BF) is one of the tools used for acquiring stress-coping skills. However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate this.

Methods: PARTICIPANTS WERE ASSIGNED RANDOMLY TO TWO GROUPS: the intervention group and the control group. Participants in the intervention group performed a biofeedback training (BFT) task (a combination task for heart rate and cerebral blood flow control) every day, for about 5 min once a day. The study outcomes included MRI, psychological tests (e.g., Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire), and a stress marker (salivary cortisol levels) before (day 0) and after (day 28) the intervention.

Results: We observed significant improvements in the psychological test scores and salivary cortisol levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. Furthermore, voxel-based morphometric analysis revealed that compared to the control group, the intervention group had significantly increased regional gray matter (GM) volume in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which is an anatomical cluster that includes mainly the left hippocampus, and the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. The GM regions are associated with the stress response, and, in general, these regions seem to be the most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that our BFT is effective against the GM structures vulnerable to stress.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Screenshots of the biofeedback-training task The biofeedback-training task aims to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) and heart rate (HR) within the designated range by controlling them separately or simultaneously. The blue line differed in width according to training level. Participants were asked to ensure that visual cue was kept inside the blue line for a given length of time and were trained to control a set of the BFT.
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fig03: Screenshots of the biofeedback-training task The biofeedback-training task aims to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) and heart rate (HR) within the designated range by controlling them separately or simultaneously. The blue line differed in width according to training level. Participants were asked to ensure that visual cue was kept inside the blue line for a given length of time and were trained to control a set of the BFT.

Mentions: The BFT was designed to control either regional CBF (rCBF), which is calculated from total hemoglobin concentration, or HR. The participants were asked to monitor their own rCBF in frontopolar cortex or HR on a PC display, and were ordered to increase or decrease them according to instructions from a PC. For example, the message “to control the CBF” or “to control the HR” is displayed on a PC display and the blue line is disposed above or below on a PC display. We managed it by programming where a blue line appears. The cue appears at the same time. The cue which they see is a biosignal of their own rCBF in frontopolar cortex or HR. The cue moves up and down by their biosignal. The training was conducted as 10 sets, of 120 sec each, per day. The participants see a cue during the BFT. In the case of both CBF and HR, the participants move a cue within the range of a blue line. To place the cue in the blue area, you have to control the CBF and HR. If the cue is maintained within the blue area for a constant amount of time that time is reflected in a score (Fig. 3). If the cue does not reach the target range after 10 sec from a training start, an advice message is displayed on a display. If the cue achieves the target range within 10 sec, level is increased and difficulty of training also increases. The training moved on to the next set when the training was uninterruptedly maintained for 15 sec within a target range. At the end of each set, a score was calculated using the formulas shown below, based on remaining time and time over which CBF and HR were maintained within the target values. If target retention was accomplishing for 15 sec within the time limit, the following formula was used: score = {(remaining time [sec] + 15 sec) + (maintaining time [sec] within the target range − 15 sec × 0.5)}/120 sec × 100. If target retention was not accomplished for 15 sec within the time limit, the following formula was used: score = (maintaining time [sec] within the target range × 0.5)/120 sec × 100.


Biofeedback-based training for stress management in daily hassles: an intervention study.

Kotozaki Y, Takeuchi H, Sekiguchi A, Yamamoto Y, Shinada T, Araki T, Takahashi K, Taki Y, Ogino T, Kiguchi M, Kawashima R - Brain Behav (2014)

Screenshots of the biofeedback-training task The biofeedback-training task aims to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) and heart rate (HR) within the designated range by controlling them separately or simultaneously. The blue line differed in width according to training level. Participants were asked to ensure that visual cue was kept inside the blue line for a given length of time and were trained to control a set of the BFT.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4128038&req=5

fig03: Screenshots of the biofeedback-training task The biofeedback-training task aims to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) and heart rate (HR) within the designated range by controlling them separately or simultaneously. The blue line differed in width according to training level. Participants were asked to ensure that visual cue was kept inside the blue line for a given length of time and were trained to control a set of the BFT.
Mentions: The BFT was designed to control either regional CBF (rCBF), which is calculated from total hemoglobin concentration, or HR. The participants were asked to monitor their own rCBF in frontopolar cortex or HR on a PC display, and were ordered to increase or decrease them according to instructions from a PC. For example, the message “to control the CBF” or “to control the HR” is displayed on a PC display and the blue line is disposed above or below on a PC display. We managed it by programming where a blue line appears. The cue appears at the same time. The cue which they see is a biosignal of their own rCBF in frontopolar cortex or HR. The cue moves up and down by their biosignal. The training was conducted as 10 sets, of 120 sec each, per day. The participants see a cue during the BFT. In the case of both CBF and HR, the participants move a cue within the range of a blue line. To place the cue in the blue area, you have to control the CBF and HR. If the cue is maintained within the blue area for a constant amount of time that time is reflected in a score (Fig. 3). If the cue does not reach the target range after 10 sec from a training start, an advice message is displayed on a display. If the cue achieves the target range within 10 sec, level is increased and difficulty of training also increases. The training moved on to the next set when the training was uninterruptedly maintained for 15 sec within a target range. At the end of each set, a score was calculated using the formulas shown below, based on remaining time and time over which CBF and HR were maintained within the target values. If target retention was accomplishing for 15 sec within the time limit, the following formula was used: score = {(remaining time [sec] + 15 sec) + (maintaining time [sec] within the target range − 15 sec × 0.5)}/120 sec × 100. If target retention was not accomplished for 15 sec within the time limit, the following formula was used: score = (maintaining time [sec] within the target range × 0.5)/120 sec × 100.

Bottom Line: However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear.The GM regions are associated with the stress response, and, in general, these regions seem to be the most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress.Our findings suggest that our BFT is effective against the GM structures vulnerable to stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Ageing International Research Center, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University Sendai, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: The day-to-day causes of stress are called daily hassles. Daily hassles are correlated with ill health. Biofeedback (BF) is one of the tools used for acquiring stress-coping skills. However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate this.

Methods: PARTICIPANTS WERE ASSIGNED RANDOMLY TO TWO GROUPS: the intervention group and the control group. Participants in the intervention group performed a biofeedback training (BFT) task (a combination task for heart rate and cerebral blood flow control) every day, for about 5 min once a day. The study outcomes included MRI, psychological tests (e.g., Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Brief Job Stress Questionnaire), and a stress marker (salivary cortisol levels) before (day 0) and after (day 28) the intervention.

Results: We observed significant improvements in the psychological test scores and salivary cortisol levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. Furthermore, voxel-based morphometric analysis revealed that compared to the control group, the intervention group had significantly increased regional gray matter (GM) volume in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which is an anatomical cluster that includes mainly the left hippocampus, and the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. The GM regions are associated with the stress response, and, in general, these regions seem to be the most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that our BFT is effective against the GM structures vulnerable to stress.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus