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Exploring Substance Use and HIV Treatment Factors Associated with Neurocognitive Impairment among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

Attonito JM, Dévieux JG, Lerner BD, Hospital MM, Rosenberg R - Front Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure.Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β = 1.031; p = 0.007).In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a 0.32 (p = 0.05) point and 1.18 (p = 0.03) points poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University , Miami, FL , USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurocognitive (NC) impairment remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) and may be exacerbated by alcohol and drug use. This cross-sectional study assesses the degree to which alcohol and other drug use, time from HIV diagnosis to treatment, and years living with HIV affect three areas of NC functioning among HIV-seropositive adults. NC functioning in 370 PLWH living in Miami, FL was assessed using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Short Category Test, Booklet Format, and the Color Trails Test 2 (CTT2). Participants reported the number of days using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine over the previous 3 months, the number of known years living with HIV and length of time from HIV diagnosis to seeking care. Bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression were used to test associations between independent and dependent variables. Mean scores on NC measures were significantly lower than published norms; 39% of participants scored ≥1 standard deviation below normative sample means on >2 NC tests. No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure. Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β = 1.031; p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a 0.32 (p = 0.05) point and 1.18 (p = 0.03) points poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively. Results suggest that both marijuana use and duration of HIV infection may affect cognitive functioning among PLWH in ways that may impair their ability to follow important treatment guidance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Significant regression paths among measured variables in the structural equation model among HIV-positive alcohol abusers (N = 370). Model included age, gender and education level as covariates. Regression coefficients (represented as one-way arrows) are unstandardized. *p < 0.05.
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Figure 1: Significant regression paths among measured variables in the structural equation model among HIV-positive alcohol abusers (N = 370). Model included age, gender and education level as covariates. Regression coefficients (represented as one-way arrows) are unstandardized. *p < 0.05.

Mentions: Bivariate analyses (Table 2) identified one significant relationship: years living with HIV was associated with poorer scores on the CTT2 (β = 1.031; 95% CI: 0.285, 1.777; p = 0.007). After examining normality, outliers and patterns of missing data, the final multivariate model was tested. Figure 1 and Table 3 present significant and non-significant unstandardized path coefficients of the final model. This was a just-identified model (χ2 = 0, 0 df; CFI = 1; RMSEA = 0; SRMR = 0). All exogenous variables were assumed to be correlated. Unstandardized path coefficients, standard errors and 95% confidence intervals are listed in Table 3. Residual error terms across three measures of NC functioning were correlated. Focused fit indices did not show evidence of Heywood cases. Standardized residual values were <2. The final model explained 8% of variance in memory, 7% of variance in information processing, and 4% of variance in executive functions. In the final model, two associations approached or achieved statistical significance. On average, for each day of marijuana use, the CTT2 score increased by 0.32 (p = 0.051), indicating poorer performance on this NC measure. Similarly, on average, each year living with HIV increased the CTT2 score by 1.18 (p = 0.03).


Exploring Substance Use and HIV Treatment Factors Associated with Neurocognitive Impairment among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

Attonito JM, Dévieux JG, Lerner BD, Hospital MM, Rosenberg R - Front Public Health (2014)

Significant regression paths among measured variables in the structural equation model among HIV-positive alcohol abusers (N = 370). Model included age, gender and education level as covariates. Regression coefficients (represented as one-way arrows) are unstandardized. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127797&req=5

Figure 1: Significant regression paths among measured variables in the structural equation model among HIV-positive alcohol abusers (N = 370). Model included age, gender and education level as covariates. Regression coefficients (represented as one-way arrows) are unstandardized. *p < 0.05.
Mentions: Bivariate analyses (Table 2) identified one significant relationship: years living with HIV was associated with poorer scores on the CTT2 (β = 1.031; 95% CI: 0.285, 1.777; p = 0.007). After examining normality, outliers and patterns of missing data, the final multivariate model was tested. Figure 1 and Table 3 present significant and non-significant unstandardized path coefficients of the final model. This was a just-identified model (χ2 = 0, 0 df; CFI = 1; RMSEA = 0; SRMR = 0). All exogenous variables were assumed to be correlated. Unstandardized path coefficients, standard errors and 95% confidence intervals are listed in Table 3. Residual error terms across three measures of NC functioning were correlated. Focused fit indices did not show evidence of Heywood cases. Standardized residual values were <2. The final model explained 8% of variance in memory, 7% of variance in information processing, and 4% of variance in executive functions. In the final model, two associations approached or achieved statistical significance. On average, for each day of marijuana use, the CTT2 score increased by 0.32 (p = 0.051), indicating poorer performance on this NC measure. Similarly, on average, each year living with HIV increased the CTT2 score by 1.18 (p = 0.03).

Bottom Line: No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure.Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β = 1.031; p = 0.007).In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a 0.32 (p = 0.05) point and 1.18 (p = 0.03) points poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University , Miami, FL , USA.

ABSTRACT
Neurocognitive (NC) impairment remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) and may be exacerbated by alcohol and drug use. This cross-sectional study assesses the degree to which alcohol and other drug use, time from HIV diagnosis to treatment, and years living with HIV affect three areas of NC functioning among HIV-seropositive adults. NC functioning in 370 PLWH living in Miami, FL was assessed using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Short Category Test, Booklet Format, and the Color Trails Test 2 (CTT2). Participants reported the number of days using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine over the previous 3 months, the number of known years living with HIV and length of time from HIV diagnosis to seeking care. Bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression were used to test associations between independent and dependent variables. Mean scores on NC measures were significantly lower than published norms; 39% of participants scored ≥1 standard deviation below normative sample means on >2 NC tests. No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure. Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β = 1.031; p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a 0.32 (p = 0.05) point and 1.18 (p = 0.03) points poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively. Results suggest that both marijuana use and duration of HIV infection may affect cognitive functioning among PLWH in ways that may impair their ability to follow important treatment guidance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus