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Hox transcription factors: modulators of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion.

Taniguchi Y - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identities in the embryo during development.Hox genes are also expressed in various adult tissues and cancer cells.In this review, the potential roles Hox proteins play in cell adhesion and migration during vertebrate body patterning are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Basic Molecular Science and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identities in the embryo during development. Hox genes are also expressed in various adult tissues and cancer cells. In Drosophila, expression of cell adhesion molecules, cadherins and integrins, is regulated by Hox proteins operating in hierarchical molecular pathways and plays a crucial role in segment-specific organogenesis. A number of studies using mammalian cultured cells have revealed that cell adhesion molecules responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are downstream targets of Hox proteins. However, whether Hox transcription factors regulate expression of cell adhesion molecules during vertebrate development is still not fully understood. In this review, the potential roles Hox proteins play in cell adhesion and migration during vertebrate body patterning are discussed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Arrangement of Hox genes in the Drosophila and mammalian genomes. In Drosophila, eight Hox genes clustered on a single chromosome, the homeotic complex (HOM-C), are divided into two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C). ANT-C comprises five Hox genes: labial (lab), proboscipedia (pb), Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), and Antennapedia (Antp). The BX-C consists of three Hox genes: Ultrabithorax (Ubx), Abdominal-A (Abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). In mammals, 39 Hox genes are divided into four separate clusters (HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD) on four different chromosomes. In each cluster, Hox genes are tandem arranged in sequence from 3′ to 5′. Hox genes with the same number are referred to as paralogs. In the embryo, expression of the 3′ paralogs occurs earlier and more anteriorly along the anterior-posterior axis, whereas the 5′ paralogs are expressed later and more posteriorly.
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fig1: Arrangement of Hox genes in the Drosophila and mammalian genomes. In Drosophila, eight Hox genes clustered on a single chromosome, the homeotic complex (HOM-C), are divided into two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C). ANT-C comprises five Hox genes: labial (lab), proboscipedia (pb), Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), and Antennapedia (Antp). The BX-C consists of three Hox genes: Ultrabithorax (Ubx), Abdominal-A (Abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). In mammals, 39 Hox genes are divided into four separate clusters (HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD) on four different chromosomes. In each cluster, Hox genes are tandem arranged in sequence from 3′ to 5′. Hox genes with the same number are referred to as paralogs. In the embryo, expression of the 3′ paralogs occurs earlier and more anteriorly along the anterior-posterior axis, whereas the 5′ paralogs are expressed later and more posteriorly.

Mentions: In Drosophila, eight Hox genes are clustered in two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C) (Figure 1). The order of genes along the chromosome corresponds to their domains of function along the anterior-posterior axis of the animal. The labial (lab) and Deformed (Dfd) genes specify the head segments, while Sex combs reduced (Scr) and Antennapedia (Antp) are required for the identities of the first and second thoracic segments, respectively. Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is responsible for specifying third thoracic segment identity, and Abdominal A (Abd-A) and Abdominal B (Abd-B) contribute to specifying abdominal segment identities. In homeotic mutants, these specific segmental identities can be changed. For example, a loss-of-function mutation in Ubx gives rise to flies with two sets of wings, due to the transformation of the third thoracic segment into one with second thoracic segment identity. This transformation, referred to as “anteriorization,” is caused by the functional substitution of the more anterior gene Antp for Ubx.


Hox transcription factors: modulators of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion.

Taniguchi Y - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Arrangement of Hox genes in the Drosophila and mammalian genomes. In Drosophila, eight Hox genes clustered on a single chromosome, the homeotic complex (HOM-C), are divided into two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C). ANT-C comprises five Hox genes: labial (lab), proboscipedia (pb), Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), and Antennapedia (Antp). The BX-C consists of three Hox genes: Ultrabithorax (Ubx), Abdominal-A (Abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). In mammals, 39 Hox genes are divided into four separate clusters (HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD) on four different chromosomes. In each cluster, Hox genes are tandem arranged in sequence from 3′ to 5′. Hox genes with the same number are referred to as paralogs. In the embryo, expression of the 3′ paralogs occurs earlier and more anteriorly along the anterior-posterior axis, whereas the 5′ paralogs are expressed later and more posteriorly.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127299&req=5

fig1: Arrangement of Hox genes in the Drosophila and mammalian genomes. In Drosophila, eight Hox genes clustered on a single chromosome, the homeotic complex (HOM-C), are divided into two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C). ANT-C comprises five Hox genes: labial (lab), proboscipedia (pb), Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), and Antennapedia (Antp). The BX-C consists of three Hox genes: Ultrabithorax (Ubx), Abdominal-A (Abd-A), and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). In mammals, 39 Hox genes are divided into four separate clusters (HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD) on four different chromosomes. In each cluster, Hox genes are tandem arranged in sequence from 3′ to 5′. Hox genes with the same number are referred to as paralogs. In the embryo, expression of the 3′ paralogs occurs earlier and more anteriorly along the anterior-posterior axis, whereas the 5′ paralogs are expressed later and more posteriorly.
Mentions: In Drosophila, eight Hox genes are clustered in two groups: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C) (Figure 1). The order of genes along the chromosome corresponds to their domains of function along the anterior-posterior axis of the animal. The labial (lab) and Deformed (Dfd) genes specify the head segments, while Sex combs reduced (Scr) and Antennapedia (Antp) are required for the identities of the first and second thoracic segments, respectively. Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is responsible for specifying third thoracic segment identity, and Abdominal A (Abd-A) and Abdominal B (Abd-B) contribute to specifying abdominal segment identities. In homeotic mutants, these specific segmental identities can be changed. For example, a loss-of-function mutation in Ubx gives rise to flies with two sets of wings, due to the transformation of the third thoracic segment into one with second thoracic segment identity. This transformation, referred to as “anteriorization,” is caused by the functional substitution of the more anterior gene Antp for Ubx.

Bottom Line: Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identities in the embryo during development.Hox genes are also expressed in various adult tissues and cancer cells.In this review, the potential roles Hox proteins play in cell adhesion and migration during vertebrate body patterning are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Basic Molecular Science and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Hox genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identities in the embryo during development. Hox genes are also expressed in various adult tissues and cancer cells. In Drosophila, expression of cell adhesion molecules, cadherins and integrins, is regulated by Hox proteins operating in hierarchical molecular pathways and plays a crucial role in segment-specific organogenesis. A number of studies using mammalian cultured cells have revealed that cell adhesion molecules responsible for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are downstream targets of Hox proteins. However, whether Hox transcription factors regulate expression of cell adhesion molecules during vertebrate development is still not fully understood. In this review, the potential roles Hox proteins play in cell adhesion and migration during vertebrate body patterning are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus