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Abarema cochliacarpos extract decreases the inflammatory process and skeletal muscle injury induced by Bothrops leucurus venom.

Saturnino-Oliveira J, Santos Ddo C, Guimarães AG, Santos Dias A, Tomaz MA, Monteiro-Machado M, Estevam CS, De Lucca Júnior W, Maria DA, Melo PA, Araújo AA, Santos MR, Almeida JR, Oliveira Rde C, Pereira de Oliveira A, Quintans Júnior LJ - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects.Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom.Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Fisiologia, Laboratorio de Farmacologia Pré-Clinica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil ; Departamento de Morfologia, Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Estrutura, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil ; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation.

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The cytoarchitecture of mouse EDL muscle 24 h after perimuscular injection of B. leucurus venom: effect of A. cochliacarpos extract (EAc). Muscles were studied by scanning electron microscopy after the removal of connective tissue matrices using a modified KOH-collagenase digestion method. (a) PSS; (b), (c), and (d) venom (1.0 mg/kg); (e) venom + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.v); (f) venom + EAc 400 mg/kg (n = 6 per group). Magnification: 100x ((a), (b), (e), and (f)); 400x ((c) and (d)).
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fig6: The cytoarchitecture of mouse EDL muscle 24 h after perimuscular injection of B. leucurus venom: effect of A. cochliacarpos extract (EAc). Muscles were studied by scanning electron microscopy after the removal of connective tissue matrices using a modified KOH-collagenase digestion method. (a) PSS; (b), (c), and (d) venom (1.0 mg/kg); (e) venom + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.v); (f) venom + EAc 400 mg/kg (n = 6 per group). Magnification: 100x ((a), (b), (e), and (f)); 400x ((c) and (d)).

Mentions: Ultrastructural study of EDL muscle fibers confirmed the observations of light microscopy (Figure 6). Control muscles injected with PSS had a constant diameter of about 20 μm and showed long cylindrical forms, occasionally splitting or dividing to provide branches within the muscle (Figure 6(a)). On the other hand, in the muscles injected with B. leucurus venom (1.0 mg/kg), focal areas of myonecrosis were abundant after 24 h. Injured fibers presented dilated perimysium and disoriented and condensed myofibrils (Figures 6(b) and 6(c)). Furthermore, as shown in Figure 6(d), hemorrhage was apparent in the endomysial connective tissue, and hemolysis was discernible. Degeneration was pronounced in areas where the erythrocytes were tightly packed between the muscle fibers. Myofibrils were hypercontracted leaving, as a consequence, areas of overstretched myofibrils as well as empty spaces. On its turn, muscles of mice treated with i.v. dexamethasone showed no damage or extensive hemorrhage (Figure 6(e)). Finally, the oral administration of A. cochliacarpos hydroalcoholic extract (400 mg/kg) also decreased the myonecrotic effect of B. leucurus venom, with fewer areas of hypercontracted myofilaments or hemorrhagic components (Figure 6(f)).


Abarema cochliacarpos extract decreases the inflammatory process and skeletal muscle injury induced by Bothrops leucurus venom.

Saturnino-Oliveira J, Santos Ddo C, Guimarães AG, Santos Dias A, Tomaz MA, Monteiro-Machado M, Estevam CS, De Lucca Júnior W, Maria DA, Melo PA, Araújo AA, Santos MR, Almeida JR, Oliveira Rde C, Pereira de Oliveira A, Quintans Júnior LJ - Biomed Res Int (2014)

The cytoarchitecture of mouse EDL muscle 24 h after perimuscular injection of B. leucurus venom: effect of A. cochliacarpos extract (EAc). Muscles were studied by scanning electron microscopy after the removal of connective tissue matrices using a modified KOH-collagenase digestion method. (a) PSS; (b), (c), and (d) venom (1.0 mg/kg); (e) venom + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.v); (f) venom + EAc 400 mg/kg (n = 6 per group). Magnification: 100x ((a), (b), (e), and (f)); 400x ((c) and (d)).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127289&req=5

fig6: The cytoarchitecture of mouse EDL muscle 24 h after perimuscular injection of B. leucurus venom: effect of A. cochliacarpos extract (EAc). Muscles were studied by scanning electron microscopy after the removal of connective tissue matrices using a modified KOH-collagenase digestion method. (a) PSS; (b), (c), and (d) venom (1.0 mg/kg); (e) venom + dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.v); (f) venom + EAc 400 mg/kg (n = 6 per group). Magnification: 100x ((a), (b), (e), and (f)); 400x ((c) and (d)).
Mentions: Ultrastructural study of EDL muscle fibers confirmed the observations of light microscopy (Figure 6). Control muscles injected with PSS had a constant diameter of about 20 μm and showed long cylindrical forms, occasionally splitting or dividing to provide branches within the muscle (Figure 6(a)). On the other hand, in the muscles injected with B. leucurus venom (1.0 mg/kg), focal areas of myonecrosis were abundant after 24 h. Injured fibers presented dilated perimysium and disoriented and condensed myofibrils (Figures 6(b) and 6(c)). Furthermore, as shown in Figure 6(d), hemorrhage was apparent in the endomysial connective tissue, and hemolysis was discernible. Degeneration was pronounced in areas where the erythrocytes were tightly packed between the muscle fibers. Myofibrils were hypercontracted leaving, as a consequence, areas of overstretched myofibrils as well as empty spaces. On its turn, muscles of mice treated with i.v. dexamethasone showed no damage or extensive hemorrhage (Figure 6(e)). Finally, the oral administration of A. cochliacarpos hydroalcoholic extract (400 mg/kg) also decreased the myonecrotic effect of B. leucurus venom, with fewer areas of hypercontracted myofilaments or hemorrhagic components (Figure 6(f)).

Bottom Line: However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects.Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom.Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Fisiologia, Laboratorio de Farmacologia Pré-Clinica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil ; Departamento de Morfologia, Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Estrutura, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil ; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Universidade Federal de Sergipe, SE, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus