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Drug delivery systems, CNS protection, and the blood brain barrier.

Upadhyay RK - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics.In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained.Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India.

ABSTRACT
Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

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fig5: Showing topical and transdermal drug delivery systems.

Mentions: Many types of organic nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes, quantam dots (semiconductors), dendrimers, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles have been made (Table 3). These are crystalline form of pure carbon. Carbon nanotubes are graphite sheets rolled into single or multiwalled tubes. Carbon nanotubes are used in electromagnetic shielding of polymers composite for hydrogen, storage, and its batteries. These are used for targeted delivery of drugs, genes, and vaccines and are widely used in thermotherapy of tumors. Quantam dots are semiconductor crystals formed by combination of chemical elements from groups II, III, and V of the periodic table. These are made up of cadmium core and metal shell and have similar size <10 nm. These are used in vitro labeling of live cells and for gene expression studies, fluorescent imaging assays to detect antigens or cells. These are used for in vivo cancer diagnosis. Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules synthesized through polymerization reactions. These are used for targeted delivery of genes, proteins, and peptides. Liposomes are closed spherical assemblies of amphipathic phospholipid bilayer. These are nontoxic, biodegradable, and nonantigenic in nature. These are used for controlled release of drugs packed within liposomes or intercalated into lipid bilayers. Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles which are made up of biodegradable polymer matrices. These are used for delivery of plasmid DNA, proteins, peptides, and low molecular weight compounds. These are mostly used to deliver water insoluble drugs (Table 3). Lipid-based, polymer based, and surfactant based carrier systems have been developed for topical and transdermal drug delivery (Figure 5). Other modifications of liposomes such as PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes are also used for targeted drug delivery (Figure 6).


Drug delivery systems, CNS protection, and the blood brain barrier.

Upadhyay RK - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Showing topical and transdermal drug delivery systems.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4127280&req=5

fig5: Showing topical and transdermal drug delivery systems.
Mentions: Many types of organic nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes, quantam dots (semiconductors), dendrimers, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles have been made (Table 3). These are crystalline form of pure carbon. Carbon nanotubes are graphite sheets rolled into single or multiwalled tubes. Carbon nanotubes are used in electromagnetic shielding of polymers composite for hydrogen, storage, and its batteries. These are used for targeted delivery of drugs, genes, and vaccines and are widely used in thermotherapy of tumors. Quantam dots are semiconductor crystals formed by combination of chemical elements from groups II, III, and V of the periodic table. These are made up of cadmium core and metal shell and have similar size <10 nm. These are used in vitro labeling of live cells and for gene expression studies, fluorescent imaging assays to detect antigens or cells. These are used for in vivo cancer diagnosis. Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules synthesized through polymerization reactions. These are used for targeted delivery of genes, proteins, and peptides. Liposomes are closed spherical assemblies of amphipathic phospholipid bilayer. These are nontoxic, biodegradable, and nonantigenic in nature. These are used for controlled release of drugs packed within liposomes or intercalated into lipid bilayers. Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles which are made up of biodegradable polymer matrices. These are used for delivery of plasmid DNA, proteins, peptides, and low molecular weight compounds. These are mostly used to deliver water insoluble drugs (Table 3). Lipid-based, polymer based, and surfactant based carrier systems have been developed for topical and transdermal drug delivery (Figure 5). Other modifications of liposomes such as PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes are also used for targeted drug delivery (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics.In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained.Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India.

ABSTRACT
Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus